The Correct Rendering of Easter in Acts 12:4 ~ Part 2

KJV This blog posting which follows on from Part 1, will deal with two videos that reveal the correct teaching pertaining to Easter being included in Acts 12:4 as opposed to Passover. Each video will also have a link to the text of each video for your study purposes.

We are instructed in Scripture:

2 Timothy 2:15  Study to shew thyself approved unto God, a workman that needeth not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth.

Video 1

Video 2

If “Easter” is not the correct word, then every international language that translates “Happy Easter” with the Greek word “πασχα (pascha)”, or the Hebrew word “פסח‬‬ (pesach)”, needs to redefine their language as far as “Easter” is concerned. Here is a list for Happy Easter:

Afrikaans – geseënde Paasfees
Albanian – gëzuar Pashkët
Arabic – فِصْح سعيد
Basque – ondo izan Bazko garaian
Breton – Pask Seder
Bulgarian – честит Великден
Chinese (Cantonese) – 復活節快樂
Chinese (Mandarin) – 復活節快樂
Catalan – bona Pasqua
Cornish – Pask Lowen
Croatian – Sretan Uskrs
Czech – Veselé Velikonoce
Danish – God Påske
Dutch – Vrolijk Pasen / Zalige paasdagen
Esperanto – Feliĉan Paskon
Estonian – Häid lihavõttepühi
Finnish – hyvää pääsiäistä
Flemish – zalig Pasen
French – joyeuses Pâques
Gaelic (Irish) – Cáisc Shona Dhuit/Dhaoibh
Beannachtaí – na Cásca
Gaelic (Manx) – Caisht sonney dhyt
Gaelic (Scottish) – a’ Chàisg sona
Galician – boas Pascuas
German – frohe Ostern
Greek – Καλό Πάσχα
Hebrew – חג פסחא שמח
Hindi – īsṭar maṅgalamay ho
Hungarian – kellemes Húsvéti Ünnepeket
Icelandic – gledilega paska
Indonesian – Selamat Paskah
Italian – buona Pasqua
Japanese イースターおめでとう
Korean – 행복한 부활절이 되시길
Latin – prospera Pascha sit
Latvian – priecīgas Lieldienas
Lithuanian – su Šventom Velykom
Maltese – L-Għid it-tajjeb
Norwegian – god påske
Persian/Farsi – عيد پاک مبارک
Polish – Wesołych Świąt Wielkanocnych
Portuguese – Feliz Páscoa
Punjabi – īsṭar khuśyāṅvālā hove
Romanian – Paşte fericit
Russian – с праздником Пасхи
Serbian – срећан Ускрс
Sicilian – bona Pasqua
Slovak – milostiplné prežitie Veľkonočných sviatkov
Slovenian – Vesele velikonočne praznike
Spanish – felices Pascuas
Swahili – heri kwa sikukuu ya Pasaka
Swedish – glad Påsk
Tagalog – maligayang pasko ng pagkabuhay
Thai – สุขสันต์วันอีสเตอร์
Turkish – paskalya bayramınız kutlu olsun
Ukranian – З Великодніми святами
Volapük – lesustanazäli yofik
Welsh – Pasg Hapus
Yoruba – Eku odun ajinde

It goes without saying, that the majority of the listed international languages translated here use the same root-word pascha/pasach! And that is for Easter!

Soli Deo Gloria!

The Correct Rendering of Easter in Acts 12:4 ~ Part 1

Dear Reader,

If there is one word that would confirm that the King James 1611 Authorised Version of the Holy Bible is correct in using the Textus Receptus and thus will show-up all other mistranslations in modern-day pervert bibles, it is the word “Easter.” This might sound like a bold-faced statement, some might even accuse that it is bordering on arrogance, but remember we all want the Truth – Right? As you embark on reading this article, please remember the following when studying the same:

Proverb 18:13 He that answereth a matter before he heareth it, it is folly and shame unto him.

pervert v. /per-vert/ 1 alter from an original meaning or state to a distortion of what was first intended. 2 lead away from what is right, natural, or acceptable.

© South African Pocket Oxford Dictionary, 3rd Edition 2002

The Companion Bible shows in the Preface that its Text “is that of the Authorised Version of 1611 as published by the Revisers in their “Parallel Bible” in 1885.” This would appear to contradict itself as the 1881 Revised Version did not use the Textus Receptus, but the Textus Corruptus of Messrs Westcott-Hort’s eclectic Greek New Testament Text. Hereunder you will see how Acts 12:4 reads and also some footnotes in the Companion Bible that read as follows, “Easter. Gr. to pascha, the Passover. Easter is a heathen term, derived from the Saxon goddess Eastre, the same as Astarte, the Syrian Venus, called Ashtoreth in the O.T..” This latter quote will be proved later on in this blog posting to be fallible and a myth in its connection with the heathen goddesses, with due respect a figment of one’s imagination and a false teaching. It is also a false teaching that writer, Gary Stephen Crous, had to repent of. Now, let us get started with the Companion Bible:

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The Tyndale Bible 1526 records it as follows:

2 congregation, to vex them. And he killed James the brother
3 of John with a* sword: and because he saw that it pleased the jews, he proceeded further, to take* Peter also. Then were the
4 days of unleavened* bread, and when he had caught him, he put him in prison, and delivered him to four quaternions of soldiers to be kept, intending after ester to bring him forth to the
5 people.

The Geneva Bible 1599 reads as follows:

And he killed Iames the brother of Iohn with the sword. And when he sawe that it pleased the Iewes, 2, 3
he proceeded further, to take Peter also (then were the dayes of vnleauened bread.) And when he 4
had caught him, he put him in prison, and deliuered him to foure quaternions of souldiers to be kept, intending after the Passeouer to bring him foorth to the people. So Peter was kept in prison, but 5

The King James Bible 1611 reads as follows:

2 And he killed Iames the brother of Iohn with the sword.
3 And because he saw it pleased the Iewes, hee proceeded further, to take Peter also. (Then were the dayes of vnleauened bread.)
4 And when hee had apprehended him, hee put him in prison, and deliuered him to foure quaternions of souldiers to keepe him, intending after Easter to bring him forth to the people.
5 Peter therefore was kept in prison, but prayer was made without ceasing of the Church vnto God for him.

So which of the preceding versions are correct? All the modern versions of the Bible have the word “Passover” which is in the pre-crucifixion Old Covenant context from a Jews’ perspective and not “Easter” which is a post-crucifixion resurrection New Testament word from a Judeo-Christian’s perspective. To get a better understanding of the Truth, here is a brilliant teaching at KJV Today titled:

“Easter” or “Passover” in Acts 12:4?

Acts 12:4 in Greek and English

Acts 12:4:

Textus Receptus: “ον και πιασας εθετο εις φυλακην παραδους τεσσαρσιν τετραδιοις στρατιωτων φυλασσειν αυτον βουλομενος μετα το πασχα αναγαγειν αυτον τω λαω”

King James Version: “And when he had apprehended him, he put him in prison, and delivered him to four quaternions of soldiers to keep him; intending after Easter to bring him forth to the people.”

English Standard Version: “And when he had seized him, he put him in prison, delivering him over to four squads of soldiers to guard him, intending after the Passover to bring him out to the people.”

The Greek word, “πασχα (pascha)”, is correctly translated as “Passover” 28 times in the New Testament in the KJV. For this reason, some critics say that the KJV’s isolated instance of translating the word as “Easter” in Acts 12:4 is an error. These critics agree with translations such as the ESV which has “Passover” in Acts 12:4. This article explains why the KJV is correct in translating “Pascha” as “Easter” in Acts 12:4. To begin with, we must set the record straight that “Easter” is not a pagan word.

Easter is not a pagan word

Myth 1: the KJV translators used “Easter” to refer to a pagan festival

The first myth to refute is the claim that the KJV uses “Easter” at Acts 12:4 to refer to a pagan holiday celebrated by king Herod. This myth is propagated by some KJV apologists who may be well-intentioned in upholding the inerrancy of the KJV. Yet such a myth defies what the KJV translators believed and practiced. Included in the 1611 edition of the KJV is a chart for finding the day of Easter in a given year. It is evident that the KJV translators viewed Easter as a Christian holiday. If the KJV translators considered Easter to be a Christian holiday, it is doubtful that they used it to mean a pagan holiday at Acts 12:4.

“To find Easter for ever.” (modern spelling)

The Holy Bible: 1611 Edition (Nashville: Thomas Nelson)

Myth 2: “Easter” comes from the goddess named “Ishtar” or “Astarte”

Those who propagate myth 1 typically identify Herod’s pagan holiday as that of the Semitic goddess, Ishtar or Astarte. This false connection between “Easter” and these names of a Semitic goddess can be traced to the work of the Scottish minister Alexander Hislop. Hislop was an outspoken critic of Roman Catholicism. His book The Two Babylons exposed many of the unbiblical doctrines and practices of Roman Catholicism. However, Hislop erred when it came to statements about the etymological relationship between Easter and the ancient idols, Ishtar or Astarte. At page 103 of his book, he writes:

What means the term Easter itself? It is not a Christian name. It bears its Chaldean origin on its very forehead. Easter is nothing else than Astarte, one of the titles of Beltis, the queen of heaven, whose name, as pronounced by the people of Nineveh, was evidently identical with that now in common use in this country. That name, as found by Layard on the Assyrian monuments, is Ishtar. (Alexander Hislop, The Two Babylons (1858), p. 103)

Sure enough, “Ishtar” (a form of “Astarte”) may sound similar to “Easter”, but the two words are not etymologically related. Astarte is “עשׁתּרות (ashtarot)” in Hebrew. This name is derived from the word “עשׁתּרה (‛ashterâh)” which means “increase” or “flock” (Brown-Driver-Briggs’ Hebrew Definitions). “עשׁתּרה (‛ashterâh)” is translated as “flocks” four times in the KJV. Hence, the name “Astarte” or “Ishtar” is a Semitic word related to animal fertility. This makes sense because Astarte was regarded as a goddess of fertility.

The etymology of “Easter” on the other hand has nothing to do with “flocks” or animal fertility. “Easter” (“Ostern” in German) is a Germanic word derived from the word “east” (“Ost” in German). Today, “east” refers to the direction from which the sun rises. The direction of east goes by that name because the Saxon word “east” meant “dawn”, “sunrise” or “morning”. The etymology of “east” is as follows:

  • “Old English east “east, easterly, eastward,” from Proto-Germanic *aus-to-, *austra- “east, toward the sunrise” (cf. Old Frisian ast “east,” aster “eastward,” Dutch oost Old Saxon ost, Old High German ostan, German Ost, Old Norse austr “from the east”), from PIE *aus- “to shine,” especially “dawn” (cf. Sanskrit ushas “dawn;” Greek aurion “morning;” Old Irish usah, Lithuanian auszra “dawn;” Latin aurora “dawn,” auster “south”), literally “to shine.” The east is the direction in which dawn breaks.” (Online Etymological Dictionary)

There is nothing in “East” that suggests animal fertility. Hence the word has nothing to do with Astarte or Ishtar. Relating the Germanic word “Easter” to the Semitic word “Ishtar” is as fallacious as relating the English word “Baby” to the Semitic word “Babylon”.

Myth 3: “Easter” comes from the goddess named “Eostre”
“Easter” means “dawn”

The Old English word for the month of April was “Eosturmonað”. The Venerable Bede (672-735) claimed that the word “Eostre” came from the name of a Saxon spring fertility goddess who went by that name. He wrote:

“Eostur-monath, qui nunc Paschalis mensis interpretatur, quondam a Dea illorum quæ Eostre vocabatur, et cui in illo festa celebrabant nomen habuit: a cujus nomine nunc Paschale tempus cognominant, consueto antiquæ observationis vocabulo gaudia novæ solemnitatis vocantes.” (De Ratione Temporum)

“Eostur-monath, which now is translated Paschal month, was once called after a goddess of theirs named Eostre, and whose name was celebrated in the festival at that [time]: by whose name they now designate the Paschal season, calling the joys of the new festival by the familiar ancient observance.” (Translation by KJV Today)

Thus unlike the Easter/Ishtar connection myth, there is some linguistic basis to the claim that the name “Easter” comes from the name of a Saxon goddess called “Eostre”. However, if the feast of the goddess was as ancient as Bede claimed, it is doubtful that he would have actually known which came first, the name of the month “Eostur-monath” or the goddess “Eostre”. In fact, “Eostur-monath” comes from “Ōstar-mānod”, the Old Germanic name for the month of April. Thus the origin of this name of the month of April is more ancient than the Anglo-Saxon language itself. By Bede’s time, the tradition of the goddess had already been established so it may have appeared to him that the month was named after the goddess. However, it is far more logical that the name of the month, which means, “East/Sunrise month”, came first in the ancestral language of the Saxons, which is Old Germanic, because March is the time when the days noticeably begin to start earlier (as stated under the section for myth 2, the Saxon word “east” was a descriptive word that referred to the dawn or sunrise. The -er suffix in “Easter” comes from the influence of either the Proto-Germanic austra or the Old Frisian aster). This religiously neutral origin for the name of Eosturmonað, derived from the Old Germanic Ōstar-mānod, is very likely because each of the months of the Old Germanic calendar is named after a natural phenomenon that characterizes the month:

Modern months Old Germanic months Meaning
January Harti-mánód Severe frost month
February Hornung Shedding of antlers
March Lenzin-mānod Spring month
April Ōstar-mānod East/Sunrise month
May Winni-mánód Graze month
June Brāh-mānod Fallow month
July Hewi-mānod Hay month
August Aran-mānod Harvest month
September Herbist-mānod Leaves month
October Wīndume-mānod Vintage month
November Wintar-mānod Winter month
December N/A N/A

Given how all the Old Germanic months are named after seasonal characteristics, it is more likely than not that “Ōstar-mānod” was originally a name given to the month based on its seasonal characteristic of the sunrise starting earlier. The Saxons borrowed the name for April from Old Germanic. It is clear that by the time of the Saxons, some of the months had been named with religious overtones (e.g. Yule, Rheda, Blood (sacrifice)). It may well be that by the time of the Saxons, a pagan meaning had become attached to the name of “Eostur-mónaþ”; but that was a later development.

Modern months Anglo-Saxon months Meaning
January Æftera Jéola After Yule
February Sol-mónaþ Soil month
March Hréð-mónaþ Rheda’s month or wilderness month
April Eostur-mónaþ East/Sunrise month
May Þrimilki-mónaþ Three milkings month
June Ærra Líða Before midsummer
July Æftera Líða After midsummer
August Weod-mónaþ Plant month
September Hærfest-mónaþ Harvest month
October Win-mónaþ Wine month
November Blót-mónaþ Blood (sacrifice) month
December Ærra Jéola Before Yule

(sources: Wikipedia entry on “Germanic calendar“)

The naming of the first spring month as “East/Sunrise month” is logical and it is most likely afterwards that Old Germanic and Saxon pagans personified and deified this “sunrise” or “dawn” and celebrated her feast during the month (the Saxons called her “Eostre” and the Old Germans called her “Ostara”). What is commonly seen among cultures is that some words referring to natural phenomena become personified as pagan deities. For example, the Semitic fertility goddess Ashtoreth (Joshua 9:10) is the deification of the Semitic word “עשׁתּרה (‛ashterâh)” which means “flock” (e.g. Deuteronomy 7:13). Another example is the Semitic fertility god Dagon (Judges 16:23) who is the deification of the Semitic word “דּגן(dâgân)” which means “wheat” (e.g. Jeremiah 31:12). Another example is the name of the Roman goddess Aurora, which is the Latin word for “dawn”. The Latin word “aurora” just means “dawn” if it is used in an ordinary sense. If a Christian goes on an “Aurora Borealis Tour”, he is by no means participating in a pagan activity but is rather simply enjoying a magnificent “dawn-like” natural phenomenon in the arctic regions. Likewise, the fact that a Saxon goddess went by the name “Eostre” does not mean that “Easter” is a pagan word. Those who hold this myth make it sound as if there was once a goddess with a certain name and Saxon Christian simply took that name arbitrarily without any biblical basis. If, for example, the pagans worshiped a goddess by the name of “Sally” and Christians today refer to the day of the Lord’s resurrection as “Sally”, then surely we have a problem. But that is not the case for Saxon Christians using “Easter” as the name of the day of the Lord’s resurrection. As “easter” was a descriptive word that referred to the dawn or sunrise, we can understand why both pagans and Christians wished to use the word “east” for their respective purposes. Pagans wished to worship a goddess of sunrise so they called her “Eostre”. Christians on the other hand wished to celebrate a very special dawn, so they called the day “Easter”.

The resurrection morning = “dawn” par excellence

The Bible describes Christ’s resurrection as being discovered in the “morning” at “dawn” or at “the rising of the sun” (see John 20:1 where it says the stone was already rolled aside while “it was yet dark”):

  • “In the end of the sabbath, as it began to dawn toward the first day of the week, came Mary Magdalene and the other Mary to see the sepulchre.” (Matthew 28:1)
  • “And very early in the morning the first day of the week, they came unto the sepulchre at the rising of the sun.” (Mark 16:2)
  • “Now upon the first day of the week, very early in the morning, they came unto the sepulchre, bringing the spices which they had prepared, and certain others with them.” (Luke 24:1)

As the Bible associates the resurrection with the dawn, there is biblical basis to calling the time of the resurrection the “dawn” par excellence. “Par excellence” means the reference is deserving of that noun more than any other. There have been many dawns throughout history, but that special dawn on the day of the resurrection is deserving of that noun more than any other. We often refer to notable biblical events using par excellence nouns, such as “the fall”, “the flood”, “the exodus”, “the exile”, “the advent”, “the cross”, etc. “Easter” is the Saxon word for this greatest dawn in all of history. By way of metonymical association, this term which refers to the “dawn” of the resurrection came to refer to the entire day of the resurrection.

The resurrection = spiritual “dawn”

Christ’s resurrection is a “dawn” also in a spiritual sense because that is when the light of salvation rose (resurrected) from the darkness of death. The following passages compare Christ to the sun rising from darkness:

  • “Arise, shine; for thy light is come, and the glory of the LORD is risen upon thee. For, behold, the darkness shall cover the earth, and gross darkness the people: but the LORD shall arise upon thee, and his glory shall be seen upon thee. And the Gentiles shall come to thy light, and kings to the brightness of thy rising.” (Isaiah 60:1-3)
  • “But unto you that fear my name shall the Sun of righteousness arise with healing in his wings;” (Malachi 4:2)
  • “And thou, child, shalt be called the prophet of the Highest: for thou shalt go before the face of the Lord to prepare his ways; To give knowledge of salvation unto his people by the remission of their sins, Through the tender mercy of our God; whereby the dayspring from on high hath visited us, To give light to them that sit in darkness and in the shadow of death, to guide our feet into the way of peace. (Luke 1:76-79)
  • “We have also a more sure word of prophecy; whereunto ye do well that ye take heed, as unto a light that shineth in a dark place, until the day dawn, and the day star arise in your hearts:” (2 Peter 1:19)
  • “I am the root and the offspring of David, and the bright and morning star.” (Revelation 22:16)

Some Christians try to avoid anything that has to do with sunrise imagery, presuming that it is pagan. Yet God in his Holy word compares Christ to the rising sun. The word, “Easter” (austra in Proto-Germanic and aster in Old Frisian; see above), with its connotation of a sunrise, pays tribute to this biblical imagery of Christ as the “Sun of righteousness”. The word translated “dayspring” at Luke 1:78 is “ανατολη”, which means “1) a rising (of the sun and stars); 2) the east (the direction of the sun’s rising)” (Thayer’s Greek-English Lexicon). The Old West-Saxon version of the Gospel of Luke translates the word as “eastdæle”, which is the Saxon word for “east/sunrise”. Luke 1:78 in West-Saxon reads, “þurh innoþas ures godes mildheortnesse. on þam he us geneosode of eastdæle up springende;” This is another proof that the word “Easter” came from the biblical language of the Saxons.

The etymology of “Easter” is similar to that of Aνατελλω

“Easter” is etymologically related to “east” (the direction) and refers to the “rising” of our Lord. This connection between the eastern direction and the resurrection makes some Christians nervous about a possible pagan influence. However, there is no reason for such concern because this connection between the eastern direction and the verb “to rise” is even found in the language in which the New Testament was written. The Greek verb “ανατελλω (anatello)” means “to rise” (Thayer’s Greek-English Lexicon) and it is the word translated as “arise” in the above passage in 2 Peter 1:19 about Christ rising in our hearts. It is also the word used in Hebrews 7:14 which says that our Lord “sprang out of Juda”. And “ανατελλω” is related to the word, “ανατολη (anatole)”, which means, “the east (the direction of the sun’s rising)” (Thayer’s Greek-English Lexicon). So there is a connection between the eastern direction and the verb “to rise” even in the language of the New Testament. The writers of the New Testament did not avoid using the verb “ανατελλω” (to rise) despite its derivation from the Greek word for “east”.

Myth 4: “Easter” is tainted by residual pagan etymology

Despite any explanation that “Easter” is derived from a generic Saxon word for “dawn” that is not pagan in and of itself (as with the Proto-Germanic austra and the Old Frisian aster), the mere possibility that a goddess went by the name of “Eostre” appears to scare some Christians into avoiding the word “Easter”. These Christians need to realize that pagans should not be given monopoly over valid words in the English lexicon. If today it is discovered that a pagan sect calls its goddess by the name “Dawn”, would these Christians abandon the word “dawn” from their everyday usage? No, that would be silly and it would amount to surrendering a perfectly biblical name to pagans. Anglo-Saxon and Old Germanic Christians may have been aware that a goddess went by the name “Eostre” or “Ostara”. These Christians may have deliberately taken a word that was popular among pagans in order to reclaim the proper use of the word. Thus the word “Easter” (“Ostern” in German) stands as a testimony of the Anglo-Saxon and Old Germanic Christians’ rejection of the goddess in reception of the true God, Jesus Christ. Such a victorious reclaiming of a beautiful word for the cause of Christ should be honored, not opposed.

The funny thing is that many Christians who oppose the use of the word “Easter” still celebrate Good Friday. Yet the word “Friday” is based on the name of a pagan goddess. The word “Friday” means “Day of Frige” – Frige being the name of a Norse goddess. “Good Friday” literally means “Good day of Frige (the goddess)”. Some Christians say that Christ died on Wednesday or Thursday and rose on Saturday. Yet “Wednesday”, “Thursday,” and “Saturday” are also derived from the names of the pagan gods Woden, Thor and Saturnus, respectively. If one would actually like to avoid a “pagan connection”, he would be wiser to avoid using the words “Friday”, “Thursday”, “Wednesday” and “Saturday” rather than the Christian word “Easter”. Avoiding all of these words, of course, is an impossibility if we wish to communicate with others regarding the days of the week. We just have to admit that the English language is the language of a people who were once pagan and that there are many vestiges of pagan etymology in English. Also to be noted is the irony that this word “Ishtar” which some Christians wish to avoid appears to be related to “Esther”, which is the name of an entire book of our Holy Bible. Esther lived in a pagan culture and was given a pagan name as with Mordecai (which is related to the pagan god Marduk). While it has been demonstrated that Easter has nothing to do with Ishtar, the Bible itself shows that God can redeem a name even if it is in fact related to Ishtar.

Myth 5: “Easter eggs” and “Easter bunnies” discredit Easter

Eggs and bunnies are fertility symbols and as such they can be considered pagan symbols. When Christians brought the celebration of the Lord’s resurrection to pagan nations, these symbols of spring became associated with the Christian celebration of Easter which happens in spring. Spring fertility festivals have ancient origins, and some of their practices are described in the Bible in passages such as Ezekiel 8:14-16 and Jeremiah 7:18 & 44:17-19. There are Christians today who avoid using the word “Easter” for fear that it necessarily refers to these pagan symbols and practices. However, the fact that our culture has come to associate fertility symbols with the name “Easter” does not mean that “Easter” itself is pagan. As with the word “Easter”, even the Greek word “Pascha” has become associated with pagan fertility symbols in present day Greece because “Pascha” is the Greek word for “Easter” (this will be explained in the next section of this article). Yet nobody in his right mind would advise Christians against using the word “Pascha”. Somehow the prejudice against the word “Easter” has become so strong among some Christians that logic no longer holds sway. Guilt by association is a logical fallacy. Moreover this logical fallacy is not applied consistently towards the word “Pascha”. Christians would be wise to purge Easter of its pagan symbols, but the word “Easter” itself remains a biblical word.

Myth 6: The calculation of the date of Easter is pagan

Even if the eggs and bunnies are taken out of Easter, some Christians might still oppose the celebration of Easter by virtue of its perceived roots in Roman Catholicism and paganism. What concerns these Christians is the date of Easter, which in Western countries is calculated based on a formula adopted by the Roman Catholic Church at the First Council of Nicaea in 325 AD. According to this formula, Easter lands on the first Sunday after the full moon following the spring equinox. Some Christians seem to think that this dependence on a Roman Catholic formula, which in turn is based on natural events such as the lunar cycle and the advent of spring, is in and of itself pagan.

While the scientific accuracy of the Nicaean formula for calculating the date of Easter is certainly open for debate, there is no basis to connect the formula to paganism. The formula is simply intended to make Easter land every year on a Sunday that is around the same time of the lunisolar year as when our Lord resurrected on that first Easter Sunday. Early Christians chose to celebrate the resurrection on a Sunday because the resurrection occurred on a Sunday (“the first day of the week” Matthew 28:1, Mark 16:2, Luke 24:1, John 20:1). The celebration was to be held annually because of its connection to the Passover which happens annually. The date of Easter happens around the same time in spring not because of a calculated effort to coincide the date with a pagan spring festival, but because it is a historical fact that our Lord resurrected on a Sunday at this time of the year after the Jewish Passover, which happens in the first spring month of the Jewish calendar. Unlike the date of Christmas, the date of Easter is based on biblical and historical facts.

The use of a formula to observe an annual Sunday celebration around the same time of the lunisolar year each year is not pagan, as even the date of Passover is set based on a formula using the lunisolar year. There is no biblical precept requiring the use of the Nicaean formula for calculating the date of Easter, but there is also no precept forbidding such a formula. The fact that this formula was adopted by Roman Catholicism at the Council of Nicaea does not mean that it is based on a Roman Catholic heresy. The Council of Nicaea did offer many sound points of theology. Once it was determined that the celebration of Christ’s resurrection should occur each year on a Sunday around the same time of the year, the formula for calculating that date was purely based on the science of the time and not based on pagan practices. If Christians today wish to come up with a better formula for calculating the date to celebrate the resurrection or do not wish to celebrate the resurrection on an annual basis (perhaps based on the belief that the resurrection should be celebrated weekly or daily), these Christians have the liberty to do so. But Christians who choose to celebrate Easter according to the Nicaean formula have the liberty to do so and their practices should not be called pagan.

The KJV is correct in having “Easter” at Acts 12:4

“Pascha” means Easter today

Now that it has been demonstrated that “Easter” is a biblical word referring to the day to celebrate Christ’s resurrection, it will be shown why the KJV is correct in translating “Πάσχα (Pascha)” as “Easter” at Acts 12:4. For starters, here are some modern Greek-English dictionaries showing that at least in modern Greek the primary meaning of “Pascha” is “Easter”, not “Passover”:

Oxford Greek-English Learner’s Dictionary (Oxford UP, 2012)

Collins Greek-English Dictionary (HarperCollins, 2003)

Divry’s Modern English-Greek and Greek-English Desk Dictionary (D.C. Divry, 1991)

Divry’s Modern English-Greek and Greek-English Desk Dictionary (D.C. Divry, 1991)

“Pascha” is a polyseme, a word with multiple meanings. In certain contexts it refers to the Jewish Passover (celebration of the Exodus). In other contexts it refers to the Christian Easter. When used by Jews in a context prior to Christ’s resurrection, the word always refers to the Jewish Passover. However, when used by Greek Christians in a context after Christ’s resurrection (as Luke, the narrator of Acts, did in Acts 12:4), the word refers to Easter.

“Kalo Pascha”

A Greek Christian Easter Card

Many English-speaking people are deceived by the similar sounds between “Pascha” and “Passover” and therefore find it difficult to understand that “Pascha” could mean Easter. The English word, “Passover”, is a perfect translation of “Pascha” in the context of the Jewish celebration because the root Hebrew word, “פּסח (pasach)”, means “to pass over” (Brown-Driver-Briggs’ Hebrew Definitions). Yet it is only in English that the verb, “pass over”, and “Pasach/Pascha” are phonetically similar. In other languages, it is not so obvious from phonetics that “Pascha” refers to the Passover. Perhaps that is why in most other languages the primary meaning of “Pascha” is not Passover. For example, in modern Greek, “Πάσχα (Pascha)” primarily means Easter. When a non-Jewish Greek person says, “Καλό Πάσχα! (Happy Pascha!)”, he is not wishing you a happy Jewish holiday but rather a happy Christian holiday. In modern Greek, Passover is the secondary meaning of “Pascha”. “Pascha” means Passover only when the context is clearly Jewish or when the word is qualified as being the Hebrew or Jewish “Pascha” as follows:

  • Easter = Πάσχα (Pascha)
  • Passover = εβραϊκό Πάσχα (Hebrew Pascha), Πάσχα των ιουδαίων (Pascha of the Jew)

Although “Pascha” was originally a Hebrew word (“פּסח (pesach)”), Greek, being the language of a predominantly Christian nation, had appropriated the Jewish word and gave it the Christian meaning of “Easter”. That is why in modern Greek, the primary meaning of “Πάσχα” is Easter and Passover is actually the secondary meaning when “Πάσχα” is qualified as the “εβραϊκό Πάσχα (Hebrew Pascha)” or the “Πάσχα των ιουδαίων (Pascha of the Jews)”. Many other languages of Christendom are like modern Greek in making Easter the primary meaning of the transliteration of “Pascha”:

Language Word for Easter Word for Passover
Danish Påske Påsken
Dutch Pasen Joods Paasfeest
French Pâques Pâques de Juifs
Italian Pasqua Pasqua ebraica
Latin Pascha Pascha
Portuguese Páscoa Páscoa dos judeus
Romanian Paşti Paștele evreiesc
Spanish Pascua Pascua Judía
Swedish Påsk Judarnas Påskhögtid

As with modern Greek, the transliteration of “Pascha” in these languages could refer to either Easter or Passover depending on context or a modifier. But often the primary meaning of “Pascha” is Easter. In French, for example, Easter is “Pâques” and Passover is “Pâques de Juifs” (“Pascha of the Jews”).

“Pascha” meant Easter in the first century

There is no doubt that “Πάσχα” means Easter in modern Greek. The charge, however, is that “Πάσχα” did not mean Easter until centuries after the composition of Acts 12:4. This is not true. In the Gospel of John there is already a distinction being made between the Christian Πάσχα and the Jewish Πάσχα. One of the words for Passover in modern Greek is “Πάσχα των ιουδαίων” (Passover of the Jews). We see this same phrase already in the time of John the Apostle:

  • John 2:13: “And the Jews’ passover was at hand….” (και εγγυς ην το πασχα των ιουδαιων)
  • John 11:55: “And the Jews’ passover was nigh at hand….” (ην δε εγγυς το πασχα των ιουδαιων)

The fact that John writes, “Jews’ Pascha (πασχα των ιουδαιων)” indicates that there was a need to qualify the word “Pascha” for the immediate audience of John’s Gospel. Such a phrase would be redundant unless there were already a distinction between a “Jew’s” Pascha and “another” Pascha. Apparently within the first century, Christians had already appropriated the word “Pascha” to refer to the Christian celebration of the resurrection.

Eusebius’ testimony is clear that the Apostles were already celebrating the “Saviour’s Pascha”, which is clearly not the “Jews’ Pascha”:

“Ζητήσεως δῆτα κατὰ τούσδε οὐ σμικρᾶς ἀνακινηθείσης, ὅτι δὴ τῆς Ἀσίας ἁπάσης αἱ παροικίαι ὡς ἐκ παραδόσεως ἀρχαιοτέρας σελήνης τὴν τεσσαρεσκαιδεκάτην ᾤοντο δεῖν ἐπὶ τῆς τοῦ σωτηρίου πάσχα ἑορτῆς παραφυλάττειν, ἐν ᾗ θύειν τὸ πρόβατον Ἰουδαίοις προηγόρευτο, ὡς δέον ἐκ παντὸς κατὰ ταύτην, ὁποίᾳ δἂν ἡμέρᾳ τῆς ἑβδομάδος περιτυγχάνοι, τὰς τῶν ἀσιτιῶν ἐπιλύσεις ποιεῖσθαι, οὐκ ἔθους ὄντος τοῦτον ἐπιτελεῖν τὸν τρόπον ταῖς ἀνὰ τὴν λοιπὴν ἅπασαν οἰκουμένην ἐκκλησίαις, ἐξ ἀποστολικῆς παραδόσεως τὸ καὶ εἰς δεῦρο κρατῆσαν ἔθος φυλαττούσαις, ὡς μηδ’ ἑτέρᾳ προσήκειν παρὰ τὴν τῆς ἀναστάσεως τοῦ σωτῆρος ἡμῶν ἡμέρᾳ τὰς νηστείας ἐπιλύεσθαι” (Church History, Book V, 23:1)

“A question of no small importance arose at that time. For the parishes of all Asia, as from an older tradition, held that the fourteenth day of the moon, on which day the Jews were commanded to sacrifice the lamb, should be observed as the feast of the Saviour’s passover. It was therefore necessary to end their fast on that day, whatever day of the week it should happen to be. But it was not the custom of the churches in the rest of the world to end it at this time, as they observed the practice which, from apostolic tradition, has prevailed to the present time, of terminating the fast on no other day than on that of the resurrection of our Saviour.” (Church History, Book V, 23:1, Translation from www.newadvent.org)

Typical English translations of Eusebius’ Church History, such as that above, translate “σωτηρίου πάσχα” as “Saviour’s passover”, but the literal translation is “Saviour’s Pascha”. Eusebius here is describing the Quartodecimanist controversy which arose when the churches in the second century could not agree on the day to celebrate the Saviour’s Pascha. While some Christians are rightly sceptical of the writings of Eusebius by virtue of his connection to the Roman Catholic church, his testimony above simply concerns a fact that Christians celebrated the Saviour’s Pascha. Eusebius gives a balanced report of the situation, even reporting that the Saviour’s Pascha originally fell on the date of the Passover instead of on a Sunday, contrary to later Roman Catholic practices. Regardless of who was right in the Quartodecimanist controversy, the fact is that Christians from early times were all celebrating the Saviour’s Pascha, which is the celebration of the resurrection of the Saviour. This was not the Jewish Passover but rather the Christian celebration of Easter.

Those who deny that “Πάσχα” came to mean “Easter” in Apostolic times are unable to explain when the shift in meaning arose. There is no record of councils or debates documenting the shift in the meaning of “Πάσχα” in Greek. There is also no logical reason for the shift in meaning to take place over hundreds of years. As far back as we can document, Greek Christians have accepted that “Πάσχα” refers to the celebration of the Lord’s resurrection, which is “Easter”. Given John’s use of the word and the uncontradicted testimonies of early church fathers, it is far more candid to accept that “Πάσχα” already meant “Easter” in the first century. In the Bible, “Πάσχα” means Passover only when used by Jews or by anyone specifically referring to the Jewish celebration. In passages prior to Christ’s resurrection, the KJV translates “Πάσχα” as “Passover” because the narrators and characters are still referring to the Jewish festival. The only times the KJV translates “Πάσχα” as “Passover” after the resurrection are in 1 Corinthians 5:7 and Hebrews 11:28. In 1 Corinthians 5:7, the word “passover” refers to the passover lamb rather than the day of the year, so it is correctly translated “passover”. In Hebrews 11:28, the narrative refers retrospectively to Moses’ conduct, which was before the resurrection, so the word is properly translated “passover”. The following diagram explains these distinctions visually:

Click above image to enlarge in a new window

“Pascha” meant Easter to Luke, the narrator of Acts 12:4

Whether “Πάσχα” should be Passover or Easter at Acts 12:4 must be determined by discerning who is using the word in this instance. If the word is used by a Jew, then the word would mean Passover. If the word is used by Herod, then the word would mean Passover or perhaps a pagan festival (although the possibility of “Πάσχα” referring to a pagan festival has no basis in history or etymology). Contrary to what many believe, it is neither the Jews nor Herod who is using the word “Πάσχα”at Acts 12:4. It is actually Luke, the Christian narrator of Acts, who is using the word “Πάσχα” to describe the timeline of events for his Christian readers in the latter first century, many of whom were Gentile Christians. At the time of Luke’s writing, “Πάσχα” at Acts 12:4 was no longer the Passover but Easter. When Luke speaks in Acts 12:4 as narrator, he is using words according to the mutual Christian perspective of himself and his readers. This is evident because he uses the word “church” (εκκλησία) at Acts 12:1 to refer to Christians. This is a dignifying Christian word to refer to the congregation of those who are called out by God. Neither Herod nor the Jews would have referred to these rebels as “the called-out ones”. However, when coming from a Christian narrator for a Christian audience, the word “εκκλησία” carries a Christian meaning. The same goes for the word “πασχα”. It may well be that Herod and the Jews had no concern or knowledge about Easter. Although Herod and the Jews were waiting for the Jewish Passover, Luke uses “πασχα” according to its Christian meaning of “Easter” to explain the timeline of events to his Christian readers. That is why “πασχα” is Easter in Acts 12:4.

Read more articles from: The King James Version is Demonstrably Inerrant

/ Part 2 of 2 to follow …

False “prophet” T. B. Joshua

Here in Africa there is “another gospel” that is being preached and practiced as is also the case in most other parts of the world. And the tragedy is that “professing believers” are being duped by these charlatans – wicked, evil and deceiving men that work black magic! Here is what Scripture warns about the false prophet:

Matthew 7:15  Beware of false prophets, which come to you in sheep’s clothing, but inwardly they are ravening wolves.

Matthew 24:11  And many false prophets shall rise, and shall deceive many.

Matthew 24:24  For there shall arise false Christs, and false prophets, and shall shew great signs and wonders; insomuch that, if it were possible, they shall deceive the very elect.

Mark 13:22  For false Christs and false prophets shall rise, and shall shew signs and wonders, to seduce, if it were possible, even the elect.

Luke 6:26  Woe unto you, when all men shall speak well of you! for so did their fathers to the false prophets.

2 Peter 2:1  But there were false prophets also among the people, even as there shall be false teachers among you, who privily shall bring in damnable heresies, even denying the Lord that bought them, and bring upon themselves swift destruction.

1 John 4:1  Beloved, believe not every spirit, but try the spirits whether they are of God: because many false prophets are gone out into the world.

This particular post has been weighing heavy on my heart – on or about August 20, 2014, whilst my vehicle was in for minor repairs, I had taken a walk into town to attend to some free-lance legal work and to also evangelise the lost until it was time for me to collect my vehicle. On my way back to the mechanic’s workshop I felt compelled to stop off at the inter-city bus terminal opposite McDonald’s in Pietermaritzburg as it was on the way. There was a coloured lady named Vanessa waiting for a bus to Johannesburg. I recognised her as a lady that I had spoken to before whilst evangelising in the city centre some months ago. We got speaking about the Lord Jesus Christ and it was then when I enquired where she was headed that she said she was going to Nigeria to get her healing/blessing from T.B. Joshua! It was at this point that I warned her that he is a false prophet and that she didn’t have to go all the way to Nigeria, when she could pray right here in Pietermaritzburg for the Lord Jesus Christ to heal her, if it is in His will and purpose at this time. Her response was that she would be meeting with some other South Africans at O.R. Tambo International Airport to fly out to Nigeria. We spoke at length and she also asked if I would pray for family members “Maurice, Clarence and Michelle.” The bus arrived, and she was on her way …

20140916185038967_Nigeria%20Building%20Collapse_image_lowres Why do “followers of T.B. Joshua” think they have to attend at his Synagogue Church of All Nations in Lagos, Nigeria to get their “healing/blessing”? Did the Lord Jesus Christ not make it abundantly clear when He said to His disciples,

John 14:13  And whatsoever ye shall ask in my name, that will I do, that the Father may be glorified in the Son.
John 14:14  If ye shall ask any thing in my name, I will do it.

Which brings us to a recent tragedy that happened on September 12, 2014, that really concerned me when I saw the following headlines in The Witness newspaper on September 17, 2014, that read: “67 from SA killed in Nigerian church – Scores also injured as building collapses.” At this time our prayers should go up before the Throne of Grace for comfort to the family members of all those who have passed into eternity. We do hope that all who lost their lives were truly born-again (John 3:3), and at the same time we should be praying for the family members’ spiritual lives that they will consider what happens to a person once they die. Scripture is very clear,

Hebrews 9:27  And as it is appointed unto men once to die, but after this the judgment:

Judgment Day is fast approaching when all must give an account of their lives during their time here on earth! Until such time what more can one do, but preach the True Gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ and continue warning the deceived masses of the false prophets, the false teachers and the anti-christs! Those that “follow” and “idol-worship” T.B. Joshua need to test all that they see and believe the plumbline of the Word of God, and they also need to repent of their wickedness in idolatry.

* Prophet TB Joshua’s Secrets Exposed *

* TB Joshua’s Horrors – Part 1 *

* TB Joshua’s Horrors – Part 2 *

The above videos reveal the unbiblical devilish practices that takes place by this false prophet T.B. Joshua, and it is so tragic that thousands upon thousands of people are deceived by his sorcery and witchcraft.

The aforementioned newspaper article ends with, quote: “The preacher [sic] has not commented directly on the deaths and initially claimed that only a few people were injured but on Sunday tweeted: “No matter how long a lie is sustained, truth will someday prevail.”” T.B. Joshua you are correct – Judgment Day will reveal the Truth and your false doctrine of devils’ healings. Unless GOD Almighty grants you salvation you will be damned! Some questions T.B. Joshua: As a “prophet,” could you not foresee the coming collapsing of the building before the event took place? – you supposedly predict many other catastrophic events. Where are all your supernatural prophetic powers now? And if you do heal, why are you not raising the dead? STOP deceiving the people!

Here is a stern Biblical warning of what is to take place in the future …

2 Thessalonians 2:8  And then shall that Wicked be revealed, whom the Lord shall consume with the spirit of his mouth, and shall destroy with the brightness of his coming:
2 Thessalonians 2:9  Even him, whose coming is after the working of Satan with all power and signs and lying wonders,
2 Thessalonians 2:10  And with all deceivableness of unrighteousness in them that perish; because they received not the love of the truth, that they might be saved.
2 Thessalonians 2:11  And for this cause God shall send them strong delusion, that they should believe a lie:
2 Thessalonians 2:12  That they all might be damned who believed not the truth, but had pleasure in unrighteousness.

Soli Deo Gloria!

Hollywood Unmasked

These videos are posted here to warn Christians and heathens alike to safeguard your souls from Hollywood’s Satanic Agenda that is using the big screens at cinemas and the television sets in your very own homes to indoctrinate you, to lead you away from your Creator GOD Almighty and to follow His enemy Satan the Devil.

This post has some of the quotes that appear on the Hollywood Unmasked 2 video together with relevant Holy Scripture that forewarns your destruction if you will not repent and turn away from the cesspool of depraved wickedness that is enslaving you in sin and chaining your souls. The following quote appears at youtube describing the part one of Hollywood Unmasked which reads as follows:

Hollywood Unmasked is an in-depth and thoroughly documented exposé conducted by Dr. Jason D. Kovar. This exposé clearly reveals just how Satanism and New Age Philosophy continues to have an influence on today’s motion pictures, as well as those of yesterday. The information found at this site will have you at the edge of your seat as deceptions unfold before your eyes.

http://www.hollywoodunmasked.com/

Please know, your only way of escape is found in the righteousness of the Lord Jesus Christ, for you are warned:

Ephesians 6:12  For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places.

Denzel Washington, Oscar winning actor, told 60 Minutes during a televised interview, “Basically what I do was go on my knees, and sort of communicated with the spirits and when I came out I was in charge. Powerful scene. I couldn’t have acted that I couldn’t have written that down and made a decision to play that.”

** WARNING **

CONTENT CONTAINS IMAGES OF A VIOLENT NATURE

PART ONE

Oprah Winfrey says, “You cannot only use your body in physical self, this is how I see acting. I ask my body to be the carrier for the spirits of those who have come before me in a way that is most meaningful to the character. Just become the vehicle for that character.” ~ Beloved Oprah Winfrey, p15

Oprah has also said, “I tried to empty myself and let the spirit … inhabit me.” ~ Good Housekeeping 12/98, p113

Robin Williams who recently committed suicide on August 11, 2014, during his life said, “Yeah! Literally, it’s like possession – all of a sudden you’re in … you just get this energy that starts going.” ~ US Magazine 1/99, p52

He also said, “But there’s also that thing – it is possession. In the old days you’d be burned for it … But there is something empowering about it. I mean it is a place where you are totally – it is Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, where you really can become this other force.” ~ US Magazine 1/99, p53

Shirley MacLaine advances the New Age Movement, also goes under spiritual possession to further her career, says, “I have seen so many channels and mediums over the past few years. I decided I would apply the same thing to show business. I simply … channelled a character that we had created … This time I allowed the character to inhabit me … I trusted that he magic would work … channelling and inspiration had become one in the same.” ~ Going Within Shirley MacLaine, p201

2 Thessalonians 2:9  Even him, whose coming is after the working of Satan with all power and signs and lying wonders,
2 Thessalonians 2:10  And with all deceivableness of unrighteousness in them that perish; because they received not the love of the truth, that they might be saved.

“Television is the major mainstream infiltration for the new Satanic religion.” ~ The Devils Notebook Anton LaVey, p86

“The TV set, or Satanic family altar, has grown more elaborate since the early 50’s, from the tiny, fuzzy screen to huge entertainment centres covering entire walls with several TV monitors. What started as an innocent respite from everyday life has become in itself a replacement for real life for millions, a major religion of the masses.” ~ The Devils Notebook Anton LaVey, p86

1 Timothy 4:1  Now the Spirit speaketh expressly, that in the latter times some shall depart from the faith, giving heed to seducing spirits, and doctrines of devils;

The late James Dean has self admitted, “I have a fairly adequate knowledge of Satanic forces.” ~ The Unabridged James Dean – the Life and Legacy Randall Riese 1991, p355

Marilyn Monroe (1926-1952) said, “Jekyll and Hyde … more than two. I’m so many people. They shock me sometimes. I wish I was just me!” ~ Goddess, p5 Anthony Summers

Marilyn Monroe was known as a Siren – “a beautiful woman who is attractive but also dangerous” ~ © South African Pocket Oxford Dictionary, 3rd Edition 2002

Hear what Holy Scripture speaks:

Proverb 6:24  To keep thee from the evil woman, from the flattery of the tongue of a strange woman.
Proverb 6:25  Lust not after her beauty in thine heart; neither let her take thee with her eyelids.
Proverb 6:29  So he that goeth in to his neighbour’s wife; whosoever toucheth her shall not be innocent.

Proverb 7:24  Hearken unto me now therefore, O ye children, and attend to the words of my mouth.
Proverb 7:25  Let not thine heart decline to her ways, go not astray in her paths.
Proverb 7:26  For she hath cast down many wounded: yea, many strong men have been slain by her.
Proverb 7:27  Her house is the way to hell, going down to the chambers of death.

** WARNING **

 CONTENT CONTAINS IMAGES OF A SEDUCTIVE NATURE

PART TWO

Adolf Hitler indoctrinated the youth of his regime, the young German boys and girls through showing indoctrinating films which even took the place of Sunday school. Hitler said, “My program for educating youth is hard. Weakness must be hammered away. In my castles of the Teutonic Order a youth will grow up before which the world will tremble. I want a brutal, domineering, fearless, cruel youth. Youth must be all that. It must bear pain. There must be nothing … gentle about it. The free, splendid beast of prey must once again flash from its eyes … That is how I will eradicate thousands of years of human domestication. That is how I will create the New Order.” ~ Adolf Hitler, 1933

Proverb 4:23  Keep thy heart with all diligence; for out of it are the issues of life.

David Puttmann producer of Chariots of Fire and The Mission confessed, “Movies are powerful. Good or bad, they tinker around inside your brain. They steal up on you in the darkness of the cinema to form or conform social attitudes … In short cinema is propaganda.” ~ Movieguide 11/90, p13

Dr. Eric Pepper, a researcher who has conducted extensive studies on the influences of films, draws attention to his observations. “The horror of television … is that the information goes in … It goes right into our memory pool and perhaps we react to it later but don’t know what we are reacting to. So later on, you’re doing things without knowing why you’re doing them or where they came from.” ~ All That Glitters Isn’t Gold, p114

Luke 16:15  And he said unto them, Ye are they which justify yourselves before men; but God knoweth your hearts: for that which is highly esteemed among men is abomination in the sight of God.

Guard your, your family’s and especially your children’s hearts. Do not be corrupted by allowing the depravity of wickedness to take a hold of your souls. Come out of the unclean things of this life and repent towards GOD and believe upon His Son Jesus Christ to save you from destruction. You have been forewarned!

Soli Deo Gloria!

The Nestle-Aland Greek New Testament Text

Proverb 18:13 He that answereth a matter before he heareth it, it is folly and shame unto him.

pervert v. /per-vert/ 1 alter from an original meaning or state to a distortion of what was first intended. 2 lead away from what is right, natural, or acceptable.

© South African Pocket Oxford Dictionary, 3rd Edition 2002

Following on from the recent five part series titled “Pervert Translations and Publishers” which can be found here – Part 1, Part 2, Part 3, Part 4, Part 5 – a stern warning that needs to be brought to elders, pastor-teachers, evangelists, laymen, scholars and theologians, which warning was hopefully picked up from the aforementioned series, is that we are to be aware of which modern-day Greek New Testament text we are using when comparing Scripture back to the “original” Greek text.

Whilst many of the person-types afore-stated in the opening paragraph say that only the original manuscripts of the Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek autographs were inspired by God Almighty, the very same persons contradict themselves when they say, and attest the fact, that they go back to the “original” text in their studies’ of God’s Word or preparation of their sermons by using man-made interlinear translations that have deviated away from the Byzantine Text – which is also known as the Majority Text or the Textus Receptus (Received Text). The Byzantine Text is the text that came through the line of Antioch, whilst the more modern translations that use the Codex Vaticanus and Codex Sinaiticus manuscripts, which incidentally differs greatly against the majority manuscripts as well as against each other, they came through the Alexandrian line, and from about 1881 this is commonly known as the Critical Text. A useful aid to see how these two lines are in operation can be found by clicking on the diagram hereunder.

kjb_chart

This Critical Text was brought about by the two Cambridge professors Messrs Brooke Foss Westcott (1825-1901) and Fenton John Anthony Hort (1828-1892) who hated what they called “that vile Textus Receptus” and therefore brought about their own eclectic critical text which is the apparatus for the modern pervert bibles. In fact, to be truthful, the eclectic critical text of Westcott-Hort should be termed the Textus Corruptus! These are The Men Who Made Themselves Judges over God’s Word, and were heretics with their outrageous beliefs and practices.

To understand the History of the Nestle-Aland Edition, we will go to their very own source as it appears at the Nestle-Aland Novum Testamentum Graece Website, and quote:

History of the Nestle-Aland Edition

In 1898 Eberhard Nestle published the first edition of his Novum Testamentum Graece. Based on a simple yet ingenious idea it disseminated the insights of the textual criticism of that time through a hand edition designed for university and school studies and for church purposes. Nestle took the three leading scholarly editions of the Greek New Testament at that time by Tischendorf, Westcott/Hort and Weymouth as a basis. (After 1901 he replaced the latter with Bernhard Weiß’s 1894/1900 edition.) Where their textual decisions differed from each other Nestle chose for his own text the variant which was preferred by two of the editions included, while the variant of the third was put into the apparatus.

The text-critical apparatus remained rudimentary in all the editions published by Eberhard Nestle. It was Eberhard Nestle’s son Erwin who provided the 13th edition of 1927 with a consistent critical apparatus showing evidence from manuscripts, early translations and patristic citations. However, these notes did not derive from the primary sources, but only from editions.

This changed in the nineteen-fifties, when Kurt Aland started working for the edition by checking the apparatus entries against Greek manuscripts and editions of the Church Fathers. This phase came to a close in 1963 when the 25th edition of the Novum Testamentum Graece appeared; later printings of this edition already carried the brand name “Nestle-Aland” on their covers.

The 26th edition, which appeared in 1979, featured a fundamentally new approach. Until then the guiding principle had been to adopt the text supported by a majority of the critical editions referred to. Now the text was established on the basis of source material that had been assembled and evaluated in the intervening period. It included early papyri and other manuscript discoveries, so that the 26th edition represented the situation of textual criticism in the 20th century. Its text was identical with that of the 3rd edition of the UBS Greek New Testament (GNT) published in 1975, as a consequence of the parallel work done on both editions. Already in 1955 Kurt Aland was invited to participate in an editorial committee with Matthew Black, Bruce M. Metzger, Alan Wikgren, and at first Arthur Vööbus, later Carlo Martini (and, from 1982, Barbara Aland and Johannes Karavidopoulos) to produce a reliable hand edition of the Greek New Testament.

The first edition of the GNT appeared in 1966. Its text was established along the lines of Westcott and Hort and differed considerably from Nestle’s 25th edition. This holds true for the second edition of the GNT as well. When the third edition was prepared Kurt Aland was able to contribute the textual proposals coming from his preliminary work on the 26th edition of the Nestle-Aland. Hence the process of establishing the text for both editions continued to converge, so that eventually they could share an identical text. However, their external appearance and the design of their apparatus remains different, because they serve different purposes. The GNT is primarily intended for translators, providing a reliable Greek initial text and a text-critical apparatus showing variants that are relevant for translation. In the case of the passages selected for this purpose the evidence is displayed as completely as possible. The Novum Testamentum Graece is produced primarily for research, academic education and pastoral practice. It seeks to provide an apparatus that enables the reader to make a critical assessment of the reconstruction of the Greek initial text.

The text of the 26th edition of the Nestle-Aland was adopted for the 27th edition also, while the apparatus underwent an extensive revision. The text remained the same, because the 27th edition was not “deemed an appropriate occasion for introducing textual changes”. Since then the situation has changed, because the Editio Critica Maior (ECM) of the Catholic Letters is now available. Its text was established on the basis of all the relevant material from manuscripts and other sources. The ECM text was adopted for the present edition following approval by the editorial committee of the Nestle-Aland and the GNT.

Now to distort the matter even further, there is now even a later 28th Edition that can be read online at their website! When are men going to stop with their pervert manuscripts?

To put this all in perspective, let us use a simple analogy: It stands to reason that if  we are told that we have a “better translation” (hypothetically-speaking) of a bible called the NIV, then why would another one have to be printed as a more up-to-date version if you already have the “best translation” (sarcastically-speaking) available. You see the irrational reasoning here? The same foolhardiness applies when a person says the “original” Greek Text was only inspired by God, but the same person goes back to a man inspired translation manuscript of the Greek Text in an interlinear to confirm God’s Word through criticism. This is dangerous ground to be playing on especially,

2 Corinthians 5:10  For we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ; that every one may receive the things done in his body, according to that he hath done, whether it be good or bad.

and

1 Corinthians 3:11  For other foundation can no man lay than that is laid, which is Jesus Christ.
1 Corinthians 3:12  Now if any man build upon this foundation gold, silver, precious stones, wood, hay, stubble;
1 Corinthians 3:13  Every man’s work shall be made manifest: for the day shall declare it, because it shall be revealed by fire; and the fire shall try every man’s work of what sort it is.
1 Corinthians 3:14  If any man’s work abide which he hath built thereupon, he shall receive a reward.
1 Corinthians 3:15  If any man’s work shall be burned, he shall suffer loss: but he himself shall be saved; yet so as by fire.

The Nestle-Aland-UBS Greek New Testament texts are “wood, hay, stubble” and will be burned up. Be forewarned, that this is a serious situation as there is false-teachings that are coming out of using these erroneous Greek New Testament Texts criticising the words contained in God’s Holy Word which is to be taught as the plumbline and not criticized.

In closing, here is a pdf format document titled “Corruption Unveiled: A Critical Analysis of the United Bible Societies’ The Greek New Testament” by brother Jesse M. Boyd which sets the record straight.

Here is also a video that needs to be watched that brings Proof the ASV, RSV, JB, LB, TEV, NEB, NIV, NASV, GNB, NRSV, NAB, CEV, NCV, ESV, NBV, NKJV, NWT (Jehovah Witness Bible), THE MESSAGE, HOLMANS, etc, are the New Vatican Versions:

Dearly beloved brethren, I might not be a learned Greek scholar, but I do take comfort from the following Scripture,

Act 4:13 Now when they saw the boldness of Peter and John, and perceived that they were unlearned and ignorant men, they marvelled; and they took knowledge of them, that they had been with Jesus.

I stand upon and believe every Word of God as contained in the King James Holy Bible. If we do not have a 100% accurate Bible in the English tongue, then where can we get an infallible, inerrant, inspired and preserved, full and complete Word from GOD? And if the versions are “some better, some worse” (quote from Dr John MacArthur’s “Transmission” on page xxi to his NASB Study Bible) then at which point will GOD give us His full historical account of His Word that is perfect? TRUTH is 100% – if it is 99.9% true with 0.1% error, it is not Truth! The 0.1% corrupts the 99.9% and makes it a LIE! King Jesus Christ of Nazareth said,

John 17:17  Sanctify them through thy truth: thy word is truth.

Whilst the only begotten Son of God, the Lord Jesus Christ warned about deception, today we need to follow His example. We need to preach the Truth and nothing, but the Truth and that includes being a Watchman upon the city wall warning about deceptions, for if the wall be fallen down you will be open to attack.

Soli Deo Gloria!

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