The Land Issue: South Africa 1652 – present: Part 5

Recapping

Flag of the Dutch East India Company svg Welcome to Part 5 of this examination into South African History. We request that you kindly read the preceding parts to gain a proper understanding and the correct context in which this particular part continues the documented course of events. The information has been gleaned from archived documents translated from the original autographs of the Journal of Johan van Riebeeck and others.

In Part 1 we looked at the meticulous planning by the Dutch in the years 1649-1651 prior to Johan van Riebeeck and the designated parties sailing from Texel in the Netherlands on their voyage to the Cape of Good Hope to establish a refreshment station as undertaken by the VOC (Dutch East Indies Company).

In Part 2 we undertook the voyage from Texel in the Netherlands on 14th December 1651 sailing on the flag ship of the fleet, the Drommedaris, to the landing at the Cape of Good Hope on 6th April 1652. We also looked extensively at the lifestyle of the Dutch settlers and their work ethic, their relationships with the local Khoikhoi and San natives and other people groups from these clans. We looked also at the relationship between the Dutch and a native interpreter named Herry. This took our learning adventure into the early days of January 1653.

In Part 3 our investigations continued from the 9th of January 1653 looking back into life at the Cape of Good Hope, the relationships being forged between the local natives and the colonists, the Dutch Christian lifestyle, the assembly service and the gospel, daily trials and tribulations experienced by the Dutch, the birth of Johan and Maria van Riebeeck’s son, christened Abraham van Riebeeck, who was born on 18th October, 1653 at the Fort de Goede Hoop, Kaapkolonie (Cape Colony; present day Cape Town), making Abraham a born white African and therefore ‘a son of Africa.’ We read about a Christian marriage on African soil, native theft and the murder of a Dutch cattle herdsman and the subsequent forgiveness to continue with friendly communications and dealings between black and white peoples. This part would end in December 1653.

In Part 4 we looked at the Christian attitudes to ‘slaves’ and we examined the Biblical teachings concerning ‘slaves’ and ‘slavery’ which is very different to the evil and wicked practices of sinful white and black men who were involved in the slave trade. We looked at the Biblical recordings of the true intension of what ‘slaves’ were to be which are servants in wilful servitude and the protections afforded those servants. We also examined the word ‘kafir’ delving into the etymology thereof and discovering the origins to be Arabian and the Islamic use of the word means ‘disbeliever.’ We then went even further back into history and ascertained that slavery stems from the Arabic world where Islam was birthed, and we see that Islamic slavery is still active and alive to this very day.

Continuance of Christian conduct to the local natives

Khoi-Traders We take up the record again from the Journal of Johan van Riebeeck[1] in this part of our research into the early life of the local natives and the Dutch colonists at the Cape Colony. 

The following extracts from the aforementioned Journal reflects as we can read the record where forgiveness and continuing grace being shown towards the local native inhabitants by the Dutch was very much the way they addressed the issues at hand. There was no retribution carried out because of theft, murder and unfriendly actions directed towards them, but on the contrary the opposite applied. Friendship was still extended to the local natives. On page 157 of the Journal we read:

No. 26.—Instruction for the Officers of the “Roode Vos,” Ready to Proceed to Saldanha Bay also the Neighbouring Islands.

. . . For this purpose you may use the little cargo still on board. On meeting the natives you shall treat them as kindly as possible, assuring them that we are un-willing to do them the least harm because of the crime of Herry, but rather desired to show them as much friendship as possible; and that we are here abundantly supplied with copper and tobacco; adding whatever may further tend to draw them towards us. For the Company is much interested in being on friendly terms and in kindly intercourse with these natives. . . . Of your arrival you must at once inform us overland, that we may consider, whilst you are there, whether we shall make an expedition against Herry, as the party sent out would be better provided with provisions from that place than could be done from this. For the rest you can gather our purpose from the conversations held in the Council and also outside of it. We therefore depend upon your diligence and wish you a prosperous voyage. Amen.

J. VAN RIEBEECK.
Jacob REYNIERSZ.

Dated in the Fort, December, 1653.

On page 160 of the Journal we read of the account of Herry’s murder of the young Dutchman looking after the herds during the Sunday Church service . . .

No. 27.—To The India Council.

. . . From the journal you will see how Herry, our interpreter, who with his people had always been under our protection and received many favours from us, robbed us of our cattle on the 19th October, during the Sunday service, and murdered the young man left in charge by the herds, and that we failed in capturing either himself or any of his. The consequence has been that the Saldanhars, informed of it, were afraid to come near the fort, thinking that we would revenge ourselves upon them. We have not been able to obtain a single animal from them since the 20th. Informed however of this fear of the Saldanhars, who would not approach nearer than half a mile, we assured them by personal visits to their encampments, unarmed, that they had no reason to be afraid; and by persuasion finally induced them to come to the fort, where they were royally treated and a new alliance with them was formed. They declared that they had no share in Herry’s doings. What the truth may be, and whether by bribes they may be induced to deliver Herry to us, time alone will show. We do not broach the subject to them, but confine ourselves to treating them well, to find out what their intentions really are. . . .

(Signed) J. van Riebeeck.
Jacob Reyniersz.

Dated in the Fort, 31st December, 1653.

On page 163 under Resolutions this entry appears concerning the manner in which the Dutch colonials are to treat the natives including Herry concerning a death of the shepherd and theft of cattle,

Tuesday, October 21.—All our cattle, 44 in number, stolen last Sunday by the Watermen during Divine service. The thieves have always been protected by us since our arrival, and we have shown them much kindness, especially the interpreter Herry, who daily dined at our table, and was clothed with Dutch clothes and adorned with a copper chain, a stick and plates. The others likewise were always well fed, and consequently always prepared to fetch water and fuel, to milk the cows and take charge of the calves. We were as kind to them as if they were our own people, and we believed that they were as favourably disposed towards us. We find that we have been deceived. The common people, who are the greatest sufferers, are very much embittered against them, and vowing vengeance. This course however, would cause great irritation, and for good put an end to all intercourse with the Saldanhars, the chief object of the Company here. The Saldanhars, we fear, will, for some time to come, hesitate to approach us with their cattle, dreading that we intend to take vengeance. We have accordingly resolved, notwithstanding the murder of young David Jansen, who herded the cattle at the time, and because the rogues were not captured red handed, to publish an order, forbidding all and every one to do the least harm to the natives, whether Beach-rangers or Saldanhars, when they show themselves at the fort; yea! not even to Herry, who is evidently the sole cause of the crime; but to show them as much kindness as possible; yea! more kindness than was shown them before, in order to remove the fears of the Saldanhars, and convince them that we do not desire to revenge an injury, and certainly not without cause; also that we do not attach any importance to any vengeance taken upon the Beach-rangers, as it would interfere with our intercourse with the Saldanhars, which is of much importance to the Company. We might also punish the innocent with the guilty, and the last error would he worse than the first. And in order to ensure safety on the road to the forest, the foresters shall always be together to the number of ten, whilst six wood carriers, always armed, shall attend the wagon. The men within the fort shall be divided into four companies, each one to have its place, in case of surprise, and also to appoint men under the gunner to work the cannon.

Also on page 164 we read that both parties, local natives and Dutch colonists, were willing to work together for the greater cause of sustained friendship,

Thursday, October 23.—A few of the musketeers guarding the woodcutters in the forest hastily arrived with the news that some Saldanhars—among them a Captain from whom last year we had bartered much cattle, and had caught and returned one which had strayed away—had brought the information that Herry was lying in False Bay with the stolen cattle and had requested the Saldanhars to be allowed to live with them; but the latter had refused, knowing that his cattle had been stolen from the Dutch. The said Saldanha Captain had also stated this to us last Saturday evening, adding that he had seen the animals, and making signs to the carpenters that more men with fire-arms should be sent for, and that he would bring them to Herry to recover the cattle. Having heard this news, and considered that the Beachrangers, Herry’s allies, were the cause of all the injury hitherto sustained by us, and that the Saldanhars had shown us unbroken kindness, as was again proved last year; and that they preferred to trade without the intervention of Herry, who never dared to venture among them unless accompanied by some of our men (one troop excepted, who seemed to be somewhat friends of Herry, though even these he and his allies approached with fear, always fleeing whenever any Saldanhars visited the fort, Herry alone remaining under our safe protection), it became more and more evident that, in accordance with the opinion of all who have visited the Cape from time to time and also those of the wrecked ships Mauritius and Haerlem, that the Saldanhars and Watermen were always hostile towards each other; that the Watermen prevented trade with the Saldanhars, and that therefore we would do a service to the Saldanhars by following Herry and his tribe,—the Saldanhars signifying that we should kill both Herry and the Watermen in order to trade with us more peaceably. It would not be necessary to do this only for the Saldanhars’ sake, but Herry and his confreres have given us cause sufficient to take revenge for the murder of the boy and the theft of the cattle. It was finally resolved, after mature deliberation, to send 17 strong soldiers, victualled for four or five days, towards False Bay, under command of Corporal J. v. Harwarden, a prudent and careful man. They were to remain during the night in the forest with the carpenters, and on the following morning to proceed with the Saldanha Captain, or without him, to wherever Herry might be with the cattle. Finding him they were to endeavour to recover the animals and capture him and his people by fair or foul means, being particularly careful that they were not tempted, deceived or killed by the Saldanhars or Watermen.

On page 170 we also read,

EDICTS (PLAKKATEN).

Edicts issued by Johan van Riebeeck and Council,

October 21, 1653.—Murder by the Hottentots of the cattle herd David Jansz, and the theft of 49 head of cattle by the murderers. Ordered, that, for various reasons in the interest of the Company, no natives, including even the thieves and the late interpreter Herry—the apparent cause of the outrage—should be molested, but on the contrary most civilly treated, not only for the sake of procuring more cattle, but likewise to travel about with a greater degree of safety, this being the best course in the interest of the Company, and for the growth of the settlement.

(Signed) Johan van Riebeeck.

Dated 21st October, 1653.

And further on page 171 we continue reading, where the Dutch are carrying on in their friendship towards the local natives, the Hottentoos have another agenda in how they confront the colonialists, in not a too friendly manner,

JOURNAL (continued).
1654.

January 3rd.—Hottentoos without cattle arrive at the fort, boldly stealing whatever they can lay their hands upon, not hesitating to deprive our people even under the fort, when unarmed, of their property, and coaxing the children aside to rob them of their brass buttons, though they are so well treated. The carriers of the palisades report that daily some 50 armed Hottentoos are loitering about the forest without approaching the fort. Do not know what to make of it. Decided to protect the carriers with 20 musketeers, and the carpenters there with 2 additional soldiers, and besides the 5 soldiers to guard the gardener’s house outside the fort, to have 5 musketeers for the gardens, the fowl, duck and geese houses; also to add 2 musketeers to the armed herds in the pastures, in order from our side to avoid all estrangement of the natives, which can only be avoided by taking good care of our own, for if they have stolen anything, they are at once afraid to come near to the fort where they are much wanted, if only to fetch fuel for the cook, which assistance is beginning to be rendered to the great relief of our people; likewise also for the re-opening of the cattle trade, which, as yet, hangs fire. Accordingly we intend soon to visit them in person to try and persuade them, but fear that Herry breeds mischief among the Saldanhars, and may treacherously conspire against us, for which we hope to be prepared.

Conclusion

The following concluding extracts record Khoikhoi, slave and colonial life at the Cape of Good Hope from various points and the sources of the information provided is recorded in the bulk of the extensively quoted text. What you will read hereunder is surprisingly different to what one would hear from the South African political rhetoric that is spewed forth by the ruling socialist communists which is diametrically opposed to the facts. Today South African history is altered and changed to appease the masses which has obvious financial rewards to the politicians by receiving the masses’ votes – the vast majority of voters being illiterate, uneducated and indoctrinated! If a lie is told repeatedly by bringing up the past repeatedly it will result in the gullible audience believing it and holding onto it. It is a form of ‘brain-washing’ hypnotism! To further their own corrupt lying agendas to the hypnotised masses there has to be a scapegoat to divert their shenanigans away from themselves and sadly they use an evil past event like ‘apartheid’ to blame for their corruption, fraud, lying, selfish ambitions and inept administration of South Africa whilst ostracising and being racist against the white population and other minority people groups, including the Khoikhoi and San peoples! You see acknowledging that the bantu tribes only arrived in South Africa from north and west Africa during the Nguni migration south does not legitimise their claim to owning the South African land! It does not fit with their political lying rhetoric to dupe the masses as they do not have a written record claiming who owned what! It is all based on hear-say. Oral tradition cannot be believed in its entirety as stories change all the time to suite one’s own agenda. If there are multiple written autographs that record certain events in history that can be substantiated by various writers, just as the educated Europeans used by recording in writing historical events that will stand for posterity, i.e. all future generations of people, here in South Africa and the world.  There is always two sides to a told story and the way forward would be to accept past history for what it was and by learning from it we hopefully will not make the same mistakes, but in order to progress as a united people we must find the middle ground that will benefit everyone. Changing history only creates lies and more heartache! Let by-gones be by-gones. All men of one race group cannot be held accountable for some men who acted out of the wretchedness of their hearts! Each man, woman and child is accountable for their own actions and one day every knee will bend and bow to the GOD of Creation before the Judgment Seat of the Lord Jesus Christ!!

Now to conclude this part of the series kindly read, how life was truly, with no punches pulled but warts and all, from the following document found online titled primarysourcepacket.pdf[2], inter alia:   

1. Diary, Jan van Riebeeck

Krotoa van Meerhoff / WikiTree Krotoa[3], called Eva by the Dutch, is the first Khoikhoi woman to appear in the European records of the early settlement at the Cape as an individual personality and active participant in cultural and economic exchange. Eva joined Commander Jan van Riebeeck’s household at the Dutch fort at around age 12. She was closely related to Oedasoa, chief of the Cochoqua Khoikhoi, but it is unclear whether her family sent her to the Dutch to work and learn the language or whether she made this decision on her own. She learned to speak fluent Dutch and Portuguese, and acted as an interpreter for the Dutch for most of her life. She converted to Christianity and in 1664 married a Danish surgeon, Pieter van Meerhoff, who was rising in the service of the Dutch East India Company. Together they had three children. After his death on an expedition to Madagascar, Eva became an alcoholic and was eventually sent to the prison colony on Robben Island for disorderly conduct. She died in 1674 and was given a Christian burial.

The following selections are from the official diary kept by the Dutch Commander Jan van Riebeeck and his council at the Cape. Since these men were representatives of a major trading company, most entries have something to do with commercial interests. Eva emerges as a savvy business partner to the Dutch, but also as a person truly suspended between two cultures. Note her use of clothing, religion, and language as she negotiates between the Dutch and the Khoikhoi worlds.

Source: Riebeeck, Jan van. Journal of Jan van Riebeeck. Volume II, III, 1656-1662. Edited by H.B. Thom and translated by J. Smuts. Cape Town: A.A. Balkema, 1954.

Eva of the Goringhaikona / WikiTree 31 October 1657:
“The Commander [Jan van Riebeeck] spent the day entertaining the Saldanhars [a Khoikhoi tribe from the interior] and questioning them about various things through the medium of a certain girl, aged 15 or 16, and by us called Eva, who has been in the service of the Commander’s wife from the beginning and is now living here permanently and is beginning to speak Dutch well.”

21 June 1658:
“Fine weather with N.W. breeze. The freeman Jan Reijnierssen came to complain early in the morning that during the night all his male and female slaves had run away, taking with them 3 or 4 blankets, clothing, rice, tobacco, etc. We thereupon called the new interpreter Doman, now called Anthony, who had returned from Batavia with the Hon. Cuneus, and asked him why the Hottentots would not search for the runaway slaves, to which he coolly replied that he did not know. [Little is known about Doman, though he was one of the important interpreters between the Dutch and the Khoikhoi in the early years. He was taken to Batavia (now Jakarta, Indonesia) to learn Dutch, and there he seems to have noticed the threat that the Dutch posed to indigenous ways of life. When he returned to the Cape, he consistently advocated Khoikhoi interests, especially of the Peninsular tribes, over those of the Dutch in trade negotiations.] The Commander, not trusting him, then called the interpreter Eva alone into his office and privately asked her whether our blacks were not being harboured by the Hottentots. On this she asked whether such was the Commander’s opinion, and being answered in the affirmative, she (speaking good Dutch) said these words, namely: “I tell you straight out, Mijnheer Van Riebeeck, Doman is no good. He told the Hottentots everything that was said in Mijnheer’s room the day before yesterday. When I told him that it was wrong to do so, he replied: ‘I am a Hottentot and not a Dutchman, but you, Eva, try to curry favour with the Commander, etc.’” She added: “Mijnheer, I also believe that the Fat Captain of the Kaapmans harbours the slaves.” On being asked what the chief would do with the slaves, Eva replied: “He will present them to the Cochoquas to retain their friendship, and they in turn will deliver the slaves to the Hancumquas living far from here and cultivating the soil in which they grow daccha [also dagga, of the cannabis family], a dry herb which the Hottentots chew, which makes them drunk and which they highly esteem.”

A depiction of a Hottentot female / WikiTree 23 September 1658:
“The interpreters Doman, or Anthonij, and Eva wished to visit their friends and asked for some copper, iron, beads, tobacco, bread, and brandy as a reward for their services as interpreters, and presents for her mother and their friends and all the natives whom they, especially Eva, would visit, to induce them to bring a larger number of cattle, as well as young horses, tusks, civet, amber, seed pearls (of which they were shown and given samples) and hides to the eland, hart, steenbuck, etc. They promised to do their best and hoped that we would soon see the fruits of their efforts; toward evening they thanked us politely and gratefully in good Dutch words for the presents they had received. They then left. When Eva reached the matted hut of Doman, also known as Anthonij, outside the fort, she at once dressed herself in the hides again and sent her clothes home. She intended to put them on again when she returned to the Commander’s wife, promising, however, that she would in the meantime not forget the Lord God, Whom she had learnt to know in the Commander’s house; she would always think of Him and endeavour to learn, etc.”

26 January 1661:
“The interpreter Eva has remained behind to live in the Commander’s house again, laying aside her skins and adopting once more the Indian way of dressing. She will resume her services as an interpreter. She seems to have grown tired of her own people again; in these vacillations we let her follow her own will so that we may get the better service from her. But she appears to have become already so accustomed to the Dutch diet and way of life that she will never be able to give it up completely.”

2. Letters, Johanna Maria van Riebeeck

Johanna Maria van Riebeeck (1679-1759) was from an elite family in the Dutch colonial network. She was the granddaughter of Jan van Riebeeck, first Dutch Commander at the Cape, who went on to hold important posts in the Dutch government in Batavia (Indonesia), and the daughter of Abraham van Riebeeck, Governor-General of Batavia. She made three advantageous marriages, and died a very wealthy widow. In 1710 she voyaged to Holland with her second husband, Joan van Hoorn, retiring Governor-General of the Indies, and his 11-year old daughter Pieternelletje. Until then, Johanna Maria had never left the Far East, and therefore we may also see her as a woman caught between cultures. In these letters, which she wrote during a stop at the Cape on her journey to Holland, we get a sense of Johanna Maria as a prim, and rather dissatisfied person. Not all of her letters have this tone, however. Unlike most visitors to the Cape, she did not enjoy the experience; she even found the world-famous botanical gardens to be rather overgrown. Note her use of the adjective “hottentottish,” and consider her assessment of acceptable living circumstances and behavior for women in the Dutch colonies. [Note: The two letters are similar because correspondence often did not reach its destination.]

Source: Briewe van Johanna Maria van Riebeeck en ander Riebeeckiana. Edited by D.B. Bosman and translated by Anne Good. Amsterdam, 1952.

From Letter 5: Johanna Maria to her Parents, 13 January 1710:
I can’t withstand the cold very well yet, and am rather uncomfortable because of it, and plagued with sinkings and a stiff neck, which I hope will get better with time.

When you see this place from the sea, it is prettier and more pleasant than when you arrive on land. It is very miserable; you don’t see grass or clover, and the streets everywhere by the castle and in the town are full of holes, as though wild pigs had rooted through them—when you decide to ride into the city or to the Company’s gardens, you are always worried about falling! And the gardens are so fine that your heart closes right up. When you come into the garden, nothing looks finer than the laurel trees, which grow quite tall here, however, the paths are very narrow. The fruit trees are full of fruit, but little is ripe yet, and there are nice vegetables too, but not planted in nice order, and the ground is very rough, so that Ms. Moutmaker likened it well to a volgeesie—which the people from the Cape don’t enjoy hearing. In this place there is nothing nice to see along the seashore, and the castle is quite ugly and the governor’s house is like a labyrinth, so that you can easily get confused, and the other houses within the castle walls look like prisons. Outside are the Hottentots, who are very ugly and stinking people, and the Dutch people also keep very untidy households. You see many people with strange faces, and the way of life is strange here. The governor is a man who enjoys company, and it looks like he enjoys having women around all the time—so there is a really courtly bunch here, but even so, everything is hottentottish.

I must admit that based on appearances, I have never seen a worse place. But as far as food is concerned, it is better here than in Batavia, and so is the climate.

From Letter 8: Johanna Maria to her Parents, 30 January 1710:
I have also received a letter here from my son Jan [Jan was actually Johanna Maria’s stepson, in his late teens or early twenties, attending university in Holland.], and he writes me that his grandmother has been quite sick all year, and lying in bed, and hoped to see me soon in the fatherland [Holland]. But he doesn’t say anything about his studies. I hope that I will find things better than what he was written to us. We have decided to let him live in our house at first, which will certainly be by far the best for him, so that he can be weaned from his friends in Utrecht. And if he really doesn’t have the desire to study, we’ll find something else for him, and I hope that I will yet see happiness in him. …

Now to tell something about this place. . . . After we came to anchor, a number of shots were fired for us from the castle, which our ship answered. Shortly afterwards the Governor Van Assenberg arrived on board, with his second in command, the Fiscal and a few others, Missus D’Abling and two captains’ wives. An hour later, we departed together toward land, and got a shower along the way, from which we became nicely wet, and it was a really cold day. In that weather we reached the pier, which looks very bad and has no steps, just planks nailed to poles, about two feet apart, going steeply up, so that we had to allow ourselves to be pulled up, and we were close to the sea which was not still at all.

A little farther off stood a dirty-looking coach with six horses (like everything here it was quite hottentottish) with which we drove to the interior of the castle, and stopped in front of the house of the governor. We entered the house, which is a very ugly building, and dirty and greasy, as though it belonged to Pater Smeerlant of Ceylon [a joke character]. The castle looks miserably unkempt, with a number of buildings of an ugly style within its walls. The city is quite large for this place, but the roads everywhere are very slovenly, full of holes high and low, so that when you ride out, you feel as though you will surely fall—the roads to Boejong Gede [presumably near Batavia] are much better and prettier, and lordly in comparison. Outside the city it isn’t any less rugged. It is a pity that the governor here doesn’t take better care of the place, and doesn’t live better himself. This whole place might then change, and also the people, who are now very jealous of one another.

The governor is a man who likes to take his pleasure daily with young misses of bad reputation, and he is very familiar with Mrs. Munckerius’s daughter, who looks like a flirt to me. The governor would certainly have been in my company daily if I had not told him that I do not enjoy the conversation of young people, and would rather keep other company.

Mrs. D’Abling is a very sweet and modest little woman, as well as two or three other women here, but they are not in the governor’s favor, because they don’t want to mix with his other company. For people like them, this is a very dreary place.

From Letter 13: Johanna Maria to her Parents, 15 February 1710:
[I am sending you] another little sack of seeds that I received from a black woman, named Black Maria, who says she is the daughter of a woman or maid who was earlier in the house of my blessed [late] Grandfather, and who begged me to send the sack to you, Father. It appears that these people still cherish a great affection for our family: besides this woman, I’ve met two or three others, as well as a very old, blind Hottentot woman, named Cornelia, and two Hottentot men, one called Dobbeltje [a type of coin] and the other Vogelstruys [Ostrich], who were able to tell me much about that time.

3. Ethnography, San Dance

Lucy Lloyd and Wilhelm Bleek, German ethnographers who lived in Cape Town, were the first people to systematically write down Khoisan folklore, beliefs and customs. They did their work in the late 19th century, so there is no way to be sure that the traditional way of life described by the informants was the same as that lived by the Khoisan in the previous centuries. Nevertheless, we know from many sources that the communal dance was an important part of Khoisan culture. The extract that follows is a firsthand account of the experience by a participant, |Han‡kass’o, also known as Klein Jantje, who was about 30 years old at the time he spoke with Bleek and Lloyd. He came from the northern Cape colony and stayed in the Bleek home for nearly two years, before returning to his people. In his storytelling he often notes who first told him the story, and this is frequently his mother. He emphasizes the celebratory aspects of the dance. Dance was used to release communal tensions, or it could take on ritual meaning, when dancers sought to reach “boiling point,” or a trance-state, where they became one with the spirit world. Note the different roles suggested for men and women in the piece below.

Source: Bleek, Wlihelm H. I., and Lucy C. Lloyd, eds. “The use of the !gõïn!gõïn, followed by an account of a Busman dance.” In Specimens of Bushman Folklore. London: George Allen & Co., Ltd., 1911.

[The speaker first explains that one of the reasons the San people beat the drum called the !gõïn!gõïn is so that the bees may flourish and produce a lot of honey.]

“And the people take honey to the women at home. For, the women are dying of hunger, at home. Therefore, the men take honey to the women at home; that the women may go to eat, for they feel that the women have been hungry at home; while they wish that the women may make a drum for them, so that they may dance when the women are satisfied with food. For they do not frolic when they are hungry.

And they dance, when the women have made the drum for them. Therefore, the women make a drum for them; they dance. The men are those who dance, while the women sit down, because they clap their hands for the men when the men are those who dance; while one woman is the one who beats the drum; while many women are those who clap their hands for the men; because they feel that many men are dancing.

Then, the sun rises, while they are dancing there, while they feel that they are satisfied with food.”

4. Rock Art, Khoisan

Rock art, found on the walls of caves and on moveable rocks, was once thought to depict simple images of the daily lives of the Khoisan. In the last 20 years, study of oral traditions and close attention to what is actually depicted in the paintings has led to a complete revision of this theory. Now it is believed that the images depict the experience of the trance dance, an integral part of Khoikhoi and San social and ritual practice. The dance was performed with the whole community present, although only a few may have done the dancing—prominently the shaman, or leader of ritual.

It was an extremely intense activity, sometimes performed after smoking dagga (cannabis), where the dancer strains to reach “boiling point” and let his or her spirit transform and get in touch with spiritual forces. In Khoisan belief, there are spirits in the world—particularly connected with animals like the largest antelope, the eland—that can influence weather, communal tensions, and personal problems. As the dancer goes into the trance, he or she hyperventilates, cramps over in pain, bleeds from the nose, and starts to hallucinate. A shaman describes this, also in the symbolism of the rock art, as transforming into the spirit of an antelope or other animal. Women were an integral part of the dance and could take part in the trance, but they are rarely depicted in rock art. Here we see the participants in the clapping circle, together with shapes from the hallucinatory experience, and figures in a state of transformation.

The paintings are extremely difficult to date and the artists are unknown. It is believed that they may have been shamans.

Source: Lewis-Williams, David and Thomas Dowson. Images of Power: Understanding Bushman Rock Art. Johannesburg: Southern Book Publishers, 1989.

Bushman Rock Art Bushman Rock Art

5. Object, Digging Stick

The Khoikhoi were semi-nomadic pastoralists (herders of sheep and cattle), who hunted game and gathered edible plants, nuts, roots, berries, and honey to supplement their diets. There was a division of labor between men and women: men hunted and tended the cattle while women looked after small stock and gathered food in the surrounding countryside. One of the implements used by women was the digging stick weighted with stones. Although the implement may appear primitive, consider what went into making it and how practical it was in its environment for its intended uses.

Source: Ratzel, Friedrich. Drawing of digging stick and stone weights. Völkerkunde. Volume 1 (Leipzig and Vienna, 1894).

image

6. Drawings, Khoikhoi

In the late 17th century, an anonymous artist did a series of impromptu sketches and set pieces showing Khoikhoi at the Cape of Good Hope. The artist seems to have been interested in capturing natural movement and depicting actual articles of Khoikhoi clothing or activities in which they engaged, rather than falling back on the stereotypes that tended to be perpetuated in European books about the Cape. But the sketches are not entirely spontaneous, since the women in some of the scenes are clearly posed in classical ways. In addition, the artist seems to have had a tendency towards allegory as he juxtaposed wrinkled and crippled old women with voluptuous young women. The depiction of young women, which sometimes seems deliberately sexualized, also raises questions about how independent an observer the artist was.

On the left side of the page, the artist shows different types of hats, facial painting, and the hide bag carried by the Khoikhoi, as well as a woman playing a drum made by drawing a leather hide over a clay pot. On the bottom of the right side of the page, the artist carries on the theme of dancing, including the notes of the chant he has heard. The lines around the legs of the women indicate the leather anklets they commonly wore. On the top of the right side of the page, Khoikhoi men and women appear to be reacting to an image in a frame—probably a mirror. The scene is not explained by the handwritten notes, but a selection from 1660 Journal of Jan van Riebeeck provides an interesting parallel: “Later on, when the said servants [of a Khoikhoi chief]—the one called Oocktis Koukoa and the other Hanhumma, herdsmen of their King’s cattle and sheep—were led to a large looking-glass in the Commander’s room, they were obviously very much alarmed, at first thinking they were looking at people in another room, and then, when they recognized themselves and other people reflected, they imagined that they were seeing spirits. Such a state were they in that Eva, Doman, and some other Hottentots living in the fort were hard put to it to bring them back to their right senses again.” The notes explaining the scenes were added at a later date by someone other than the author.

Source: Drawing of Khoi dancers and musical instruments. In The Khoikhoi at the Cape of Good Hope: Seventeenth-century drawings in the South African Library, Text by Andrew B. Smith and Translations by Roy H. Pheiffer. Cape Town: South African Library.

Drawings Khoikhoi

7. Travel Narrative, Peter Kolb 1

Peter Kolb was a German astronomer and mathematician who lived at the Cape from 1705 to 1713. He was initially sponsored by a German baron to make astronomical observations in pursuit of a way to calculate longitude accurately. When this project ended, Kolb stayed at the Cape and observed everything else. About three years after his return to Germany, he began to compile a book about his experiences, based on letters and notes he had written. This book (more than 850 large pages) was divided into three sections: the first discussed the flora, fauna, minerals, water, and topography of the Cape. The second addressed the social life and customs of the Khoikhoi (then known as Hottentots). The third discussed the political intrigues of the Dutch colony during the years Kolb was part of it. His ethnographic conclusions are now contested, but there is no doubt that his book is an important source for understanding interaction among the various ethnic groups at the Cape in this early period. Although Kolb was not married and had no children, he made numerous comments about many different aspects of women’s lives. In the excerpt below, he discusses the rearing of children, but also offers a glimpse into how closely Europeans, Khoikhoi, and slaves lived and worked together.

Source: Kolb, Peter. “On the Manners and Customs which are observed among the European Inhabitants…” Letter Eight, Part Three in Caput Bonae Spei Hodiernum. Translated by Anne Good Nuremberg: Peter Conrad Monath, 1719.

Not all parents need to be accused of nurturing their children badly, since there are still some to be found who lead honest lives—but there are still far too few who may be accused of spending too much time with their children when they are still young and tender, or who watch and care for them, and try to instill honesty in them together with their mother’s milk. Instead, from the very beginning the whole care is given over to slave women or even female Hottentots [Khoikhoi], and the parents are content as long as the children suffer no pain, or other unpleasantness that could hurt them, or learn obviously bad manners.

Just think to yourself what good such an Aja, as these caregivers are called, could do for a young child, leading a heathen life, given over to lust and other sinful desires, carrying on indecent and wanton conversations with others like herself in the presence of the child, and not caring for anything except that the child have enough to eat and drink, clothes, and lack no other incidentals, so that the child will not cry and fuss a lot, and she will not receive a harsh reprimand. Thus the child will be brought up in pleasure and happiness, even though the foundation for a real fear of God will be completely neglected. This is a circumstance that cannot be lamented too highly, and should find disapprobation among all righteous Christians.…

It cannot be denied that such an Aja does indeed know how to get on with the child skillfully enough, and is a faithful caregiver when it comes to anything necessary for bodily health. No one would disagree either, that they are good language teachers, and that their mother tongue, or at least the Portuguese, which is commonly used throughout the East Indies, and may be considered a main language in these lands, flows into the children at the same time as mother’s milk [presumably they were wet nurses as well]. Still, with all these skills, in my opinion they still lack that which is most essential and important to bringing up children.

For, not considering the fact that they speak very bad and broken German, or rather, Dutch, and therefore are not able to teach the child this language, so that in the beginning all the children here speak German very badly, almost like the French people [Huguenots who had fled religious persecution in France] who are just beginning to learn the language—there is an even greater impediment that prevents these caregivers from steering the children towards true godliness, which should be learned above all else: the Ajas themselves still lead heathen lives, and therefore hardly know even by name what godliness is or means.

8. Travel Narrative, Peter Kolb 2

Peter Kolb was a German astronomer and mathematician who lived at the Cape from 1705 to 1713. He was initially sponsored by a German baron to make astronomical observations in pursuit of a way to calculate longitude accurately. When this project ended, Kolb stayed at the Cape and observed everything else. Kolb was writing for a European audience, and therefore often played to their expectations. In the case of the Khoikhoi, the assumption was that these people were among the most primitive on earth. Thus, his work had to be used with caution when trying to reconstruct the early history of the Khoikhoi. On the other hand, when Kolb’s observations are compared with those of modern anthropologists, significant overlaps may be found, so that it seems clear that Kolb spoke directly to Khoikhoi men and women about their beliefs and customs. In the following excerpts, Kolb discusses Khoikhoi practices during and after the birth of a child. Ask yourself how, as a European man, Kolb could have seen or heard about these rituals. Nevertheless, his account cannot be simply discounted, since it is known that Khoikhoi did consider water risky for expectant mothers and newborn infants, and cattle played major and significant roles in the economy and rituals of traditional Khoikhoi society.

Source: Kolb, Peter. “On the Ceremonies and Customs that the Khoikhoi Observe at the Birth of a Child…” Letter 8, Part Two in Caput Bonae Spei Hodiernum. Translated by Anne Good Nuremberg: Peter Conrad Monath, 1719.

When a Hottentot [hereafter Khoikhoi] woman feels the hour for giving birth coming near, she always has two or three other Khoikhoi women with her, to keep her company and help her during the birth. As soon as she feels labor pangs, and has to lie down, one of these women runs and fetches the midwife, of which there is one in every kraal [or village homestead]. This midwife will have been chosen by the other women to fill this office, and she will always be called to lend a helpful hand during the birth.

As soon as the midwife arrives, and goes into the dwelling of the pregnant woman, the man of the house must leave, and may not be seen there again as long as his wife is in labor. If he comes back even to ask how his wife is doing, he is punishable, if any of the other men or women heard him, and he will have to make himself right again [anders machen—go through a cleansing ritual]. That is, after the woman has born her child, the man will have to slaughter one or two fat rams to legitimate himself again. But the meat will not be given to the new mother or the other women, rather the men will eat it, and the women will just receive the broth, as in the case of other slaughtering for cleansing rites.

[Kolb then describes how when a Khoikhoi woman has a difficult birth she will be given a drink of tobacco cooked in milk to ease the way. He suggests that women in Europe might not be able to survive drinking the concoction.]

. . . If the child is born alive, they do not wash or bathe it in water, for they say that this is Sickum, or unhealthy. Instead, they have a different and extraordinary way of cleaning the birth filth off the baby—though according to the customs of Europeans, we would say that this is just making it even more offensive than it was by nature. For, instead of using water, or something else that one might use to clean newborn children, they take fresh cow dung and rub it all over the child, so that it is simultaneously perfumed and coloured grass-green.

[Kolb goes on to say that after the dung has dried, the women rub the baby all over with a paste made from the mashed leaves of a specific plant. After this has soaked in, they rub the baby all over with sheep’s fat or butter, and sprinkle it with powder made from a dried herb used for ceremonial purposes (buchu). They do this to make sure that the child will live and be strong.]

. . . . Can such a result [health and strength] be brought about by applying such stuffs? I must doubt it, since God gives and sustains life, and must be asked, and the child’s constitution must be taken into account. Still, small things often produce great results, and so I will leave it to others to investigate these customs, and make up their own minds.

9. Will, Laurens Verbrugge and Beletje Frederikszoon

Laurens Verbrugge and Beletje Frederikszoon were ordinary people from Holland who settled in Stellenbosch (near Cape Town), and took up farming there. Though not wealthy, they did own slaves and had sufficient property that they felt the need to draw up a will when Beletje became ill. Note the Christian beliefs expressed in the wording of the will.

Laurens was Beletje’s second husband which was not unusual at the Cape, where there were fewer European women than men throughout the 18th century. Women therefore tended to marry early to men older than themselves who often died before them. It was not uncommon for women to marry three times, which could cause disputes over inheritance. Marriage among Europeans, Khoikhoi, and slaves was not forbidden, though relatively rare; sexual relations were more common. The status of the children of slave women by European fathers was precarious, and in the following will it is difficult not to speculate on the paternity of the slave girl Christintje. (The “-tje” ending to Dutch words means “little” and often suggests affection when attached to names.)

Source: Notarial Deeds and Wills 1708-1714, #12. Stellenbosch Files: 1/STB 18/3. Cape Town Archives Repository. Translated by Anne Good.

27 October 1711
Testament between Laurens Verbrugge and Beletje Frederiksz.

In the Name of the Lord, amen.

Knowing that they are the only ones who may be concerned with the contents of this present and public instrument, made in the year after the birth of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, one thousand seven hundred and eleven, on the twenty-seventh of October, around midday, twelve o’clock, before me Peter Kolb (provisional secretary to the Magistrate and Council etc.) and the witnesses named below, the following appeared in person—the honorable Laurens Verbruggen and the virtuous Belie Frederiks, a married couple living in Stellenbosch, the testator [Laurens] healthy of body, standing and walking, but the testatrix [Belie] sick and lying in bed, but completely in command of her mind, understanding, and memory and well able to use them, as it appeared to us. The couple declared that, considering the brittleness of human life, the certainty of death but the uncertainty of the time and hour when it will come, they intended not to take leave of this world before they had disposed of their temporal goods, lent to them by God Almighty, doing this of their own free and unforced will, without the direction or deception of anyone else, committing first of all their immortal souls to the protecting hand of God, and their dead bodies to the earth, asking an honorable burial, revoking, breaking and declaring null and void all other testaments, codicils, marriage conditions, or any other public agreements, made by them together or by each separately, whatever they might be, so that they may not be observed in any point.

First, the testators bequeath to the poor of Stellenbosch the sum of 25 guilders, Cape value, which will be given out by the one who lives the longest, after the death of the other, out of their remaining goods.

Furthermore, the testators, explain that, before any other claims, the one who dies first leaves to the one who lives longest the inheritance of the house, with all land belonging to it, and all its contents, standing in Stellenbosch, together with a new wagon with eight draft oxen, which the one who lives longest should enjoy as their own unencumbered property, without any difficulty being raised by the children of the testatrix by her first husband. This on the express condition that the one who lives longest will not be able to alienate or reduce the property, with the understanding that after both their deaths, the property will be given to the children of the testatrix by her first husband. Moreover, this will should stand only as long as the one who lives longest remains unmarried, because both of the testators wish to keep in mind, that the children of the testatrix may not be overlooked.

If the testator [Laurens] comes to die first, it is his intention and complete declaration, that, in case any of his brothers’ or sisters’ children comes to live at the Cape of Good Hope, that person should receive a sum of no more than fifty Rixdollars, excepting which, all the rest of the goods should go to the children of the testatrix by her first marriage.

Next, the testatrix, declares that it is her will and design, that the slave child called Christintje, should remain the property of her son’s child, baptized Beeltje after the testatrix, as long as they both shall live, desiring that the aforesaid slave child will never be sold or otherwise alienated, but expressly stipulating that the aforementioned slave child, after the death of her son’s child Beeltje, will be free. Finally the testators reverently ask that the honorable lords of the Orphans’ Chamber at the Cape of Good Hope will become the executors and administrators over their remaining goods and inheritance, and that the honorable lords will have the goodness to administer the inheritance for the children of the testatrix by her first marriage. [This was the usual arrangement.]

Having heard the above clearly and precisely read to them, the testators declare this to be their final will and testament, desiring that the same will stand and take effect in every part . . . . All of this done in the house of the testators, in the presence of the former town counselors, Jan Botma and Adam Tas—as witnesses of good reputation, expressly asked to be here, who, together with me, the provisional secretary, and the testators, sign below on the day, hour and year mentioned above.

As witnesses
[signatures of]
Jan Botma
Ad. Tass

This is the personal mark t mark and signature
of Laurens Verbrugge

This the mark \\\ and the personal signature of
Beeltje Frederiks

With my knowledge
P. Kolbe
Provisional secretary

10. Law, Alcohol Sale

The following law suggests that slaves and Khoikhoi were considered particularly prone to alcohol addiction. There is some anecdotal evidence that this was a common stereotype held by Europeans at the Cape. Some scholars argue that alcoholism may indeed have been more prevalent among the Khoikhoi and African slaves because indigenous fermented drinks were not as strong as those brewed by Europeans. Furthermore, it is known that among the Khoikhoi, fermented drinks and dagga (like cannabis) were used for ritual purposes at the occasion of the trance dance. The following law regulates who may sell or serve alcoholic drinks, particularly prohibiting slave and Khoikhoi women from being involved. It is unclear, however, whether the law is meant to regulate alcohol or to control the leisure time activities of slaves. Since slave and Khoikhoi women are at the center of this issue, we may ask why it seemed “worse” to the authorities to have these women selling liquor rather than anyone else.

Source: "Laws and Regulations Respecting Slaves at the Colony the Cape of Good Hope since the Year 1658 till a. 1805." In Dutch laws translated into English. 1806. James Ford Bell Library. University of Minnesota.

3 September 1754
“But whereas a still greater annoyance has been experienced in as much that some Persons who have obtained Licences to sell strong Liquors, do not scruple to have it done by Slaves or what is still worse by Hottentot and other women in their own Houses without any Superintendance whereby other Slaves are the more easily debauched into all kinds of bad practices; no Person therefore shall employ any male or female Slave or other Woman even were she already emancipated, to draw or sell strong Liquors in the Tap or Public Houses, under the same Penalty as before mentioned of the loss of Licence over and above a Fine of Two hundred Rixdollars and the male & female slave or other Woman so doing shall besides be severely flogged.”

11. Law, Slave Women and Children

Khoi Women and Dutch Colonist WDL11267 in 1700s Although marriage was not forbidden between Europeans and slaves or other non-Europeans, it was quite rare and entailed a drop in social status for the European. Nevertheless, sexual relationships occurred—sometimes coerced, sometimes by mutual agreement. The children born to slave women by these relationships were seldom openly acknowledged by their fathers, and thus usually followed the fate of their mothers. Religious and secular authorities were not at ease with this situation. This can be seen in church proclamations that called on Europeans to baptize all their slave children, and secular laws that sought to regulate the living conditions of slave children, especially of mixed race. In the following excerpt, it is noteworthy that the “children of free heathen” are also mentioned. These “heathens” were probably not Khoikhoi, but rather former slaves, either from East Africa or Asia, who bought or earned their freedom and were known as Free Blacks. In this case, the designation “heathen” might also refer to followers of Islam.

Source: "Laws and Regulations Respecting Slaves at the Colony the Cape of Good Hope since the Year 1658 till a. 1805." In Dutch laws translated into English. 1806. James Ford Bell Library. University of Minnesota.

20 June 1766
That in future the Statutary Law that no Children of free Heathen begotten on their female Slaves, whether the Estate be beforehand or not, may be sold, nor the Mothers of those Children, should the Estate be solvent, shall be observed, and it is likewise understood to forbid all Executors and Administrators of Estates without Exception and they are hereby forbidden accordingly to sell Children begotten by Christians on their Slaves whether the Estate be solvent or not; with authority to allow such a Child or Children to follow those who may apply for them and be willing to bring up those otherwise Unfortunates in the Reformed Religion; or in default of such should the children be descended from European Blood, but not otherwise, to give them to the Deacons of the Reformed Congregation in order to be brought up in the Poor House & instructed in the above mentioned manner.

That towards the Encouragement of Fidelity among the Slaves, with regard to those who possess them in property, such of them as rescue their Masters or Mistresses from any great Danger of their Lives or save them from being murdered, or use their utmost endeavor thereto at the risk of their own Lives, must immediately be made free and above all may not be sold either by their Masters, or by Executor or Administrators of Estates.

In Part 6 we will look at the Slave Lodge opened in 1679 in the Cape Colony (present day Cape Town), we will attempt to walk in the footsteps of slaves and hopefully describe their daily movements in and around the Cape Colony away from their places of work, and also look at slaves owned by slaves (you read correctly) as well as slaves placing requests with the authorities “praying to be manumitted” and proposing to give a fellow slave in exchange for their freedom! We will also briefly look at slavery being abolished in 1838! Until the next time,

Soli Deo Gloria

_____________________

Footnotes:

[1] Precis of the Archives of the Cape of Good Hope, December 1651 – December 1655, Riebeeck’s Journal – by H. C. V. Leibrandt, Keeper of the Archives. Part I. Cape Town : W. A. Richards & Sons, Government Printers, 1897. pp100-171.

[2] Krotoa, called Eva by the Dutch, is the first Khoikhoi woman to appear in the European records of the early settlement at the Cape as an individual personality and active participant in cultural and economic exchange.

[3] Krotoa (Goringhaikona) Meerhoff (abt. 1642 – 1674): WikiTree Where genealogists collaborate https://www.wikitree.com/wiki/Goringhaikona-1

Related Blog Posts:

The Gospel comes to South Africa (13 December 2012)

Answer to Sandile ~ Part 1 (3 June 2013)

The Gospel . . . Racism and South African History (8 March 2016)

365 Years Ago Today . . . (6 April 2017)

The Land Issue: South Africa 1652 – present: Part 4

Recapping

Flag of the Dutch East India Company svg Welcome to Part 4 of this examination into South African History. We request that you kindly read the preceding parts to gain a proper understanding and the correct context in which this particular part continues the documented course of events. The information has been gleaned from archived documents translated from the original autographs of the Journal of Johan van Riebeeck and others.

In Part 1 we looked at the meticulous planning by the Dutch in the years 1649-1651 prior to Johan van Riebeeck and the designated parties sailing from Texel in the Netherlands on their voyage to the Cape of Good Hope to establish a refreshment station as undertaken by the VOC (Dutch East Indies Company).

In Part 2 we undertook the voyage from Texel in the Netherlands on 14th December 1651 sailing on the flag ship of the fleet, the Drommedaris, to the landing at the Cape of Good Hope on 6th April 1652. We also looked extensively at the lifestyle of the Dutch settlers and their work ethic, their relationships with the local Khoikhoi and San natives and other people groups from these clans. We looked also at the relationship between the Dutch and a native interpreter named Herry. This took our learning adventure into the early days of January 1653.

In Part 3 our investigations continued from the 9th of January 1653 looking back into life at the Cape of Good Hope, the relationships being forged between the local natives and the colonists, the Dutch Christian lifestyle, the assembly service and the gospel, daily trials and tribulations experienced by the Dutch, the birth of Johan and Maria van Riebeeck’s son, christened Abraham van Riebeeck, who was born on 18th October, 1653 at the Fort de Goede Hoop, Kaapkolonie (Cape Colony; present day Cape Town), making Abraham a born white African and therefore ‘a son of Africa.’ We read about a Christian marriage on African soil, native theft and the murder of a Dutch cattle herdsman  and the subsequent forgiveness to continue with friendly communications and dealings between black and white peoples. This part would end in December 1653.

Christian attitudes toward ‘slaves’

The Dutch East India Company (VOC) We now pick up the narrative once again looking at various documents that have been included in the Journal writings of Johan van Riebeeck[1] and the VOC, that particularly show the friendly dealings of the Dutch conveying their Christian ethos towards their fellow man. Whilst this particular portion of the various parts will deal with the Hollanders’ stance on ‘slaves’ and ‘slavery’, we will be able to see that slaves were initially never intended to be the local Khoikhoi and San natives encountered at the Cape of Good Hope. The  recordings encountered make reference and point to labour being brought from afar, from people groups who were known to be of service and who were ‘experienced’ in certain fields, i.e. agriculture, masonry, building, etc. It should also be noted that from a Christian perspective and from what the Bible teaches concerning slaves and slavery the teachings however do not fit with the evil and wicked practice of sinful white and black men involved in the predominately Atlantic slave trade, which also incorporated the Indian Ocean, North and Central African and Mediterranean slave trade routes that existed from the 16th to the 20th centuries.

the%20atlantic%20slave%20trade

We are reminded in scripture,

9  The heart is deceitful above all things, and desperately wicked: who can know it? 
10  I the LORD search the heart, I try the reins, even to give every man according to his ways, and according to the fruit of his doings. ~ Jeremiah 17:9,10

Whilst this particular posting will deal with ‘slaves’ and slavery’, it however will not be dealt with exhaustively (possibly a blog for another day), but will reveal the connection due to the political divide saying black slavery was connected with whites stealing land! This will be shown to be untrue in many respects and political disinformation due to the many tribal wars that also took place during the Mfecane (Difaqane) – “a series of wars fought as African societies in southern Africa expanded in size and competed for power, land and other resources from about the 1790s to the 1850s.”[3] (A separate blog posting dealing with this particular era of South Africa’s diverse history will be dealt with at a future time – GSC).

A painting of the Dutch landing at the Cape of Good Hope Commencing, we pick up from certain journal entries how the Dutch Christians had planned their way forward in dealing with the native Khoikhoi and San people and any other ‘slaves’ to be brought to the Cape.

At page 100 of the Journal under the date 13th May 1652, we can read,

… In case you decided upon an Eastern course it would be advantageous also to visit some Madagascar harbours, where some profitable trade might be secured at least in slaves, and I would be glad to receive the advices and notes of the Hon. van der Stel, who I recollect visited the place from Mauritius in his time with a yacht, and made a good thing with slaves. …

Under a heading titled “No. 6.—Batavia—To the India Council”, we read at page 108,

… Would like to have some slaves for the dirtiest and heaviest work, to take the place of the Dutchmen in fetching stone, &c., which are to be obtained only at a distance, and with which we will be able to make whatever is necessary. Some slaves from Batavia would therefore be welcome, who know how to cut stone and dig up the soil. You should also send us some tile and brickmakers, as brickmaking will be harder work than fetching and preparing the stone. …

(Signed) J. v. Riebeeck.

Cape of Good Hope, 25th May, 1652.

From portions of the Edicts that follow one can read the initial undertaking of kind and protected treatment of the local natives and the consequences to be dished out to those persons found ill-treating them, as we can read from an extract at pages 125-126 of the Journal,

EDICTS (PLAKKATEN.)
ISSUED BY Commander Johan van Riebeeck and Council from the 9th April, 1652, to the 14th October, 1652.

April 9, 1652.—… And should anyone ill-treat, beat, or push a native—whether he be right or wrong—he shall in the presence of the latter receive lashes, that the natives may he made to understand that the deed has been against our will, and that we desire to associate with them in all kindness and friendliness, according to the orders and object of our Lords Principals. Therefore the various guards shall likewise be specially ordered also to keep an eye on this. And should they connive at any harm done to the natives, they shall (if convicted) receive the same punishment. Everyone is therefore earnestly admonished and ordered to show all friendliness and amiability to the natives, that in course of time they may be made accustomed to us by our friendly intercourse, and help to realize the object of the Masters. Everyone however, shall be on his guard and not venture among them so far or trust himself among them, that they may overpower and massacre, or carry him off. …

Thus done by the broad Council on the ship Drommedaris, this 9th April, 1652. (Signed) J. VAN RIEBEECK.

And at page 128 thereof we continue reading concerning the Christian ethos the Dutch held to, imploring all to not neglect their Christian practice, if in fact they were true Christians. We can also understand that in and amongst the Dutch Reformed Christians of the 17th century there would be some who were unbelievers for at no time can one say that there would always be a 100% believing people group. Just as 21st century South Africans profess that they are predominantly “all Christian,” when supposedly professing Christians are not Christian at all in the true sense of the word and by their practices! In the words of the Lord Jesus Christ, for it is written,

16  Ye shall know them by their fruits. Do men gather grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles?
17  Even so every good tree bringeth forth good fruit; but a corrupt tree bringeth forth evil fruit.
18  A good tree cannot bring forth evil fruit, neither can a corrupt tree bring forth good fruit.
19  Every tree that bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down, and cast into the fire. 
20  Wherefore by their fruits ye shall know them.
~ Matthew 7:16-20

For if all were true Christians they would follow the teachings of the Lord Jesus Christ and not have mixed in with their faith and belief the Roman papal system, ancestral traditions and customs of men, heresy and the like! In the Journal, exhorting to attendance of the Christian practice is made,

… And as many absent themselves from daily prayer, and the Sunday Christian exercises and exhortations—attending very little to their religion, which all true Christians, for the sake of their consciences, should principally, and before all other things cherish carefully, if the blessing of the Lord on this place is not to be withheld, and he does not wish to forfeit the grace of the Lord—everyone, whoever he may be, is warned henceforth to attend at the place appointed for the purpose; …

(Signed) J. van Riebeeck.

In the Fort Good Hope, 9th October, 1652.

Further, at page 140 from a letter “No. 25.—To Riebeeck. From Batavia.”, we read in part the instructions from the Batavian Republic of the intensions of the Dutch concerning “slaves and the local natives”. There appears to be a clear distinction between the “local native service” and “foreign slaves”, as we read as follows:

… We have not been able to persuade any Chinese to leave their country for such a distant land and with such uncertain prospects; neither can we at the moment send any slaves, because we require them ourselves. We trust that the natives have come nearer and settled under the fortress, and that they will be sufficiently inclined for service to do all kinds of work instead of slaves, and where if possible they should be kept by means of little presents. …

(Signed by the India Council) Carel Reiniersz, Joan Maetsuyker, Carel Hartzinck, Joan Cunceus, Corn: Caesar, D. J. Steur.

In the Castle of Batavia, 24th December, 1652.

The main slave routes in medieval Africa [Photo: Wikipedia] God’s Word and slavery

From what we have seen recorded above concerning how the Dutch Christians were to deal with the local natives concerning labour and prospective slaves to be had, we will now examine what GOD’s Word says concerning slavery and the slave.

To place the teachings in GOD’s Holy Word into its proper context, one must realise that if one was without a job, one could sell oneself into servitude in order to obtain a proper living where the servant slave would be cared for with clothing, food, accommodation and in the context and time frame that we refer to health care, and also be paid a sum of money for their services. This practice would not be any different to a modern-day ‘live-in maid’ or a ‘live-in garden boy’ or on a bigger comparison to farm labourers who ‘sell themselves’ into labour! Sinful and wicked men brought about the enslaving of people and selling them off to the highest bidders at slave markets. It was also wicked sinful men that brought about the beatings and inhumane treatment of their ‘slave property.’ Unfortunately and with great righteous anger this evil and wicked practice still continues even today in the 21st century, just under a different guise: Human trafficking!

One should also bear in mind the context of the word slave which historically has taken on a more wicked, inhumane and sinister meaning deviating from the Biblical intention and practice of servitude. It is also clear from reading GOD’s Word one can see that GOD intended that slaves would be looked after and cared for.

To quantify and qualify these afore-stated facts we go to GOD’s Holy Word as contained in the 1611 Authorised Version in English, commonly known as the King James Version Bible, and we see that the word “slave” appears only once in Jeremiah 2:14 and the word “slaves” also only once in Revelation 18:13. One would expect that during the 17th century the word “slave” would be brandied around more often as it was common practice at that time. However, godly men of GOD who translated the Bible from the original autographs of the Textus Receptus (the Received Text) into the English language were moved of GOD to record the correct translated words which we record here for ease of reference, as contained in the Strong’s Complete Word Study Concordance[2], these being in their many grammatical forms, viz:

  • slave (1)
  • slaves (1)
  • servant (493)
  • servant’s (9)
  • servants (476)
  • servants’ (4)
  • bondmaid (2)
  • bondmaids (2)
  • bondman (6)
  • bondmen (17)
  • bondservant (1)
  • bondwoman (8)
  • bondwomen (3)
  • maid (36)
  • maid’s (1)
  • maids (9)
  • maidservant (16)
  • maidservant’s (1)
  • maidservants (9)
  • maidservants’ (1)
  • manservant (12)
  • manservant’s (1)
  • manservants (1)
  • menservants (10)
  • womenservants (3)

It is suggested that as a Bible scholar (or a layman just passing by), that you consult each of the references from the Strong’s Concordance and place each word in its proper context reading from Scripture. However, to get to the main point, the vast majority of the words used in context are found to be the word servant(-s), which explanation for ease of reference is quoted here in its entirety from page 1930[2]:

H5650 עבד , ‘ebed, eh’-bed; from 5647; a servant:– X bondage, bondman, [bond-] servant, (man-) servant.

A masculine noun meaning a servant, a slave. Although the most basic concept of this term is that of a slave, slavery in the Bible was not the same as the slavery of modern times. The period of slavery was limited to six years (Ex 21:2). Slaves had rights and protection under the Law (Ex 21:20). It was also possible for slaves to attain positions of power and honour (Gen 24:2; 41:12). In addition, the people under the king were called his servants (Gen 21:25); as well as his officers (1Sam 19:1); officials (2Kin 22:12); ambassadors (Num 22:18); vassal kings (2Sam 10:19); tributary nations (1Chr 18:2,6,13). This word is also a humble way of referring to one’s self when speaking with another of equal or superior rank (Gen 33:5). The term is also applied to those who worship God (Neh 1:10); and to those who minister or serve Him (Isa 49:5,6). The phrase, the servant of the Lord, is the most outstanding reference to the Messiah in the OT, and its teachings are concentrated at the end of Isaiah (Isa 42:1,19; 43:10; 49:3,5-7; 52:13; 53:11).

As stated above that the word ‘ebed comes from 5647, we also quote extensively from page 1930[2] the following:

H5647 עבד , ‘âbad, aw-bad’; a primitive root; to work (in any sense); by implication to serve, till, (causative) enslave, etc.:– X be, keep in bondage, be bondmen, bond-service, compel, do, dress, ear, execute, + husbandman, keep, labour (-ing man), bring to pass, (cause to, make to) serve (-ing, self), (be, become) servant (-s), do (use) service, till (-er), transgress [from margin], (set a) work, be wrought, worshipper.

A verb meaning to work, to serve. This labour may be focused on things, other people, or God. When it is used in reference to things, that item is usually expressed: to till the ground (Gen 2:5; 3:23; 4:2); to work in a garden (Gen 2:15); or to dress a vineyard (Dt 28:39). Similarly, this term is also applied to artisans and craftsmen, like workers in fine flax (Isa 19:9); the labourers of the city (Eze 48:19). When the focus of the labour is another person, that person is usually expressed: Jacob’s service to Laban (Gen 29:15); the Israelites’ service for the Egyptians (Ex 1:14); and a people’s service to the king (Jgs 9:28; 1Sam 11:1). When the focus of the labour is the Lord, it is a religious service to worship Him. Moreover, in these cases, the word does not have connotations of toilsome labour but instead of a joyful experience of liberation (Ex 3:12; 4:23; 7:16; Jos 24:15,18). Unfortunately, this worship service was often given to false gods (Dt 7:16; 2Kin 10:18,19,21-23).

The servant (slave) laws that were given to GOD’s people, the Hebrews, can be read hereunder from the Book of Exodus, for it is written,

Chapter 21

1  Now these are the judgments which thou shalt set before them. 
2  If thou buy an Hebrew servant, six years he shall serve: and in the seventh he shall go out free for nothing. 
3  If he came in by himself, he shall go out by himself: if he were married, then his wife shall go out with him. 
4  If his master have given him a wife, and she have born him sons or daughters; the wife and her children shall be her master’s, and he shall go out by himself. 
5  And if the servant shall plainly say, I love my master, my wife, and my children; I will not go out free: 
6  Then his master shall bring him unto the judges; he shall also bring him to the door, or unto the door post; and his master shall bore his ear through with an aul; and he shall serve him for ever. 
7  And if a man sell his daughter to be a maidservant, she shall not go out as the menservants do. 
8  If she please not her master, who hath betrothed her to himself, then shall he let her be redeemed: to sell her unto a strange nation he shall have no power, seeing he hath dealt deceitfully with her. 
9  And if he have betrothed her unto his son, he shall deal with her after the manner of daughters.
10  If he take him another wife; her food, her raiment, and her duty of marriage, shall he not diminish.
11  And if he do not these three unto her, then shall she go out free without money.
12  He that smiteth a man, so that he die, shall be surely put to death.
. . . 
16  And he that stealeth a man, and selleth him, or if he be found in his hand, he shall surely be put to death.
. . .  
20  And if a man smite his servant, or his maid, with a rod, and he die under his hand; he shall be surely punished. 
21  Notwithstanding, if he continue a day or two, he shall not be punished: for he is his money.
. . .  
26  And if a man smite the eye of his servant, or the eye of his maid, that it perish; he shall let him go free for his eye’s sake. 
27  And if he smite out his manservant’s tooth, or his maidservant’s tooth; he shall let him go free for his tooth’s sake.
. . .  
32  If the ox shall push a manservant or a maidservant; he shall give unto their master thirty shekels of silver, and the ox shall be stoned.

Whilst these Laws were given to the Hebrews, as Christians in the New Testament we are reminded in scripture that,

16  All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness: 
17  That the man of God may be perfect, throughly furnished unto all good works. ~ 2 Timothy 3:16,17

Therefore, the Dutch Christians were to use the Holy Scriptures of the Bible as their standard for dealing with their fellow man and neighbours. Even in today’s legal system a vast majority of the laws in place stems from the Holy Bible!

Slave traders and the “K-word”! 

At page 142 under a title “LETTERS AND DOCUMENTS DESPATCHED. No.—14.—Batavia—To the India Council by the “Muyden.”” we read an entry in the Journal dealing with provisions that can be used in the trade along the African coast where the Mozambique traders trade,

26th April, 1653.—… With the return fleet of next year we shall expect the same quantity of clothing. Supply at present inadequate. The same as regards provisions; also rice, which is more convenient than bread. Would also like to have one or two parcels red cloths, not too fine or too coarse, in case we are ordered from home to trade along the coast which the Mozambique traders frequent, and where for cheap articles much gold, tusks, ebony and fine Caffers for slaves are to be had, as you may gather from the accompanying extract of the present letter to the Masters.

(Signed) J. v. Riebeeck.

Arab slave traders and their captives along the Ruvuma River in Mozambique [Photo: Wikipedia]

Arab slave traders and their captives along the Ruvuma River in Mozambique [Photo: Wikipedia]

From this preceding transcript it is not clearly stated as to the race of these “Mozambique traders,” but seeing that they are mentioned as possible indigenous inhabitants of Mozambique it can be deduced that they were the local African inhabitants of that African region. Therefore, it is very interesting that a record has been made of these Mozambique traders dealing in “fine Caffers for slaves are to be had.” This information had been made known to/by Johan van Riebeeck from the “accompanying extract of the present letter to the Masters.” And judging from the above artist’s impression it appears that this was “black Arab slavers selling black slaves!”

It is at this point that we should look at the etymology of the South African reference to the “K-word”! The word is originally Kafir, also spelt Caffer or Kaffir! The two latter spellings are the British English spelling of the original Arabic word Kafir, where the search engine WikiIslam[4] gives the following definition, quote:

A kāfir (كافر ; plural كفّار kuffār) is a disbeliever, someone who rejects Allah and who does not believe in Muhammad as the final messenger of Allah.[1][2] Although Christians and Jews are called the People of the Book (أهل الكتاب ahl al-kitab), they qualify as disbelievers[3][4][5] according to the Qur’an. The word “kafir” can be offensive to non-Muslims, as it has roots meaning “concealer” and “ingrate” implying that non-Muslims are liars. It is also often used by Muslims as an extremely offensive curse word. Other terms which are used to refer to non-Muslims include “faasiq” (sinner, corrupt) and “munafiq” (hypocrite).

This word was used by many nations to describe people as ‘unbelievers’ or ‘non-believers’, a word that had no real racist connotations in times past. In the true sense of the Arabic word kafir, you would have black kafirs, white kafirs, brown kafirs, and any other unbelieving kafirs who did not embrace Islam. It is unfortunate that sinful men started using a word in a racial way to describe people groups. It is even more unfortunate that during the apartheid years in South Africa (1948-1994), which “apartheid” (“apartness” or “separation”) was instituted by the Reunited National Party (Herenigde Nasionale Party) whose first apartheid-era prime minister was Daniel François Malan (1948–1954), that the Arabic word kafir became the derogatory word “kaffer” used by Afrikaners, but not all,  as a very offensive swear word directed at black Africans in very demeaning ways. This disrespectful word also then became a vulgar word used by Afrikaans, English and even some Bantu tribes of South Africa, just as the word can also be used by Muslims as an extremely offensive curse word. This word was used to bring down the black African man “to put him in his place” – the HNP’s 1948 pro-Afrikaner political rhetoric with their neo-Nazi attitude. Where the Nazi’s under Adolph Hitler subjected the Jews to concentration camps during the Second World War (1939-1945) the Nationalist government in South Africa subjected the black Africans to townships in their segregation or separateness policies enforced as Apartheid!

A comparison between certain 'freedoms' of the U.S. Constitution and the 'teachings' in the Qur'an Also at the same WikiIslam webpage as mentioned above one can read “How to Become a Kafir”. Listed, one can read, “Call on anyone other than Allah (i.e. for intercession) (Qur’an 10:106), Dislike Allah (Qur’an 39:45)” and other references. But the one reference that should leap out at the reader should be “Judge by any other law aside from Islamic law (Qur’an 5:44)”. This infers that you become a kafir in terms of the Islamic faith because you judge by another law aside from Shari’ah Law (Islamic Law). That will then make the ‘infidel’ South African government and its citizens all kafirs which according to the Promotion of Prevention of Unfair Discrimination Act the entire Muslim faith is guilty of crimen injuria (Latin, short for crimen injuria datum, meaning “offence committed without lawful cause”).

Islamic slave traders

The following quoted extract also comes from the WikiIslam webpage at this Islamic law[5] link:

Slavery

Main Article: Slavery

Slave market in Khartoum, c. 1876 [Photo: Wikipedia] Slave market in Khartoum, c. 1876 [Photo: Wikipedia]

Under Islamic laws, slavery is explicitly permitted.[145] As Saudi Sheikh Saleh Al-Fawzan, a member of the Senior Council of Clerics had said in 2003, those who argue that slavery is abolished are "ignorant, not scholars. They are merely writers. Whoever says such things is an infidel."[146] Muhammad himself was a slaver. He not only owned many male[147][148] and female[149] slaves, but he also sold, captured, and had sex[150] with his slaves. Even his wives owned slaves. Apologists will claim that Muhammad provided a system that would eventually lead to the abolition of slavery, but this is not true and nowhere does Islamic scripture support such a statement. Yes, Muhammad regulated it and allowed for the manumission of a slave, but this is by no means an obligation. It is clear that Muhammad held no animosity towards slavery,[151] and at times even discouraged the freeing of slaves.[152] He even encouraged racism by exchanging two black slaves for one Arab.[153] As is clear, Muhammad’s actions perpetuated the existence of this reprehensible trade by institutionalising it within Islam, This sanction of slavery has helped the Muslim world create one of the largest trans-continental slave trades in history. The Eastern Islamic slave trade is the longest yet least discussed of the two major trades. Much like the Crusades and the Islamic Conquests which prompted them, you only hear of the one and not the other. Many people are not even aware that the Arab slave trade ever existed, even though it began around 650 AD (pre-dating the European slave trade by over a thousand years) However, It was only officially abolished (due largely to pressure from the West,[154] rather than their own conscience) in the 1960’s and the slave trade still exists in the Islamic East. As of July 2009,[155] there were over half a million slaves in Mauritania alone. In Pakistan, the labor minister of Punjab had said in early 2009 that there are "millions of forced laborers in ‘private prisons’ across the country",[156] and the town of Hajja, Yemen, in 2010 is home to another 300 slaves.[157] This (just like the history of Jihad) is an ongoing atrocity that many want to erase from our history books and have largely succeeded in doing so. Unlike the Europeans who were primarily interested in male slaves for use as agricultural workers, the

Inspecting New Arrivals by Giulio Rosati 2Inspecting New Arrivals by Giulio Rosati 2 [Photo: WikiIslam]

Islamic raiders interests (like Muhammad’s before them) lay in female slaves to use for sexual exploitation as concubines, in harems. Also, putting aside the 1.25 million white Europeans Christians who were captured and sold into the Muslim slave trade between the 16th and 19th century,[158] the number of innocent Africans who were taken (or died in the process of being taken) as slaves over the last fourteen centuries of Islamic slavery is estimated to be higher than 140 million.[159] This figure dwarfs the numbers that were taken at the hands of Europeans. And unlike in the West, male slaves (blacks in particular) were commonly castrated,[160] hence the lack of surviving descendants of black slaves in the Middle-East.

White Cargo Pic [Photo: Wikipedia] We also know that there was not only blacks captured and sold off as slaves but whites too were captured and sold into slavery. But not much is said about the “white cargo trade” for it does not assist with the black political rhetoric! Also, it is always argued that the white people were the only slave traders, and yes they were as owners of ships and as “masters”, however, it was black men and Arabs that were rounding up the black slaves in Africa and the Middle East! Blacks were selling blacks for greedy prosperity! Nothing has changed, nowadays they just use politics to sell out the black man; and the white man? well, he is their scapegoat!

From the Holy Bible we see the first dealings in the selling of a young Hebrew named Joseph into slavery by his very own brothers. And Joseph found himself being sold to the Ishmeelites, the descendants of Ishmael, the half brother of his grandfather Isaac born to Abraham. Ishmael was the son born of his mother Hagar the Egyptian, the maid of Abraham’s wife Sarah (see Genesis 16, at the time Abraham was Abram and Sarah was Sarai). Ishmael is the forefather of Islam’s Muslims. We read of the selling of Joseph the Hebrew into slavery to be carried down to Egypt, today a Muslim nation, for the account is written as follows,

23  And it came to pass, when Joseph was come unto his brethren, that they stript Joseph out of his coat, his coat of many colours that was on him;
24  And they took him, and cast him into a pit: and the pit was empty, there was no water in it.
25  And they sat down to eat bread: and they lifted up their eyes and looked, and, behold, a company of Ishmeelites came from Gilead with their camels bearing spicery and balm and myrrh, going to carry it down to Egypt.
26  And Judah said unto his brethren, What profit is it if we slay our brother, and conceal his blood?
27  Come, and let us sell him to the Ishmeelites, and let not our hand be upon him; for he is our brother and our flesh. And his brethren were content.
28  Then there passed by Midianites merchantmen; and they drew and lifted up Joseph out of the pit, and sold Joseph to the Ishmeelites for twenty pieces of silver: and they brought Joseph into Egypt. ~ Genesis 37:23-28

One should go and read the Biblical History of this account that has been documented for mankind. Joseph had many trials down in Egypt, but GOD worked it all out for HIS will and purpose. Joseph not only ended up in jail being falsely accused of trying to lay with Pharaoh’s wife, but he eventually ended up ruling Egypt as second-in-command to Pharaoh! The end of the historical story is that what his brothers meant for evil, GOD used for HIS own good by saving HIS people. Our ways are not GOD’s ways and we do not always understand or know the reasons why events do take place, but thankfully GOD is in control reigning on high and knows the end from the beginning! GOD however does not condone men’s wicked slavery behaviour! The conclusion to Joseph’s story is that forgiveness and restoration takes place. We read, for it is written,

1  Then Joseph could not refrain himself before all them that stood by him; and he cried, Cause every man to go out from me. And there stood no man with him, while Joseph made himself known unto his brethren. 
2  And he wept aloud: and the Egyptians and the house of Pharaoh heard. 
3  And Joseph said unto his brethren, I am Joseph; doth my father yet live? And his brethren could not answer him; for they were troubled at his presence. 
4  And Joseph said unto his brethren, Come near to me, I pray you. And they came near. And he said, I am Joseph your brother, whom ye sold into Egypt. 
5  Now therefore be not grieved, nor angry with yourselves, that ye sold me hither: for God did send me before you to preserve life. 
6  For these two years hath the famine been in the land: and yet there are five years, in the which there shall neither be earing nor harvest. 
7  And God sent me before you to preserve you a posterity in the earth, and to save your lives by a great deliverance. 
8  So now it was not you that sent me hither, but God: and he hath made me a father to Pharaoh, and lord of all his house, and a ruler throughout all the land of Egypt. 
9  Haste ye, and go up to my father, and say unto him, Thus saith thy son Joseph, God hath made me lord of all Egypt: come down unto me, tarry not: 
10  And thou shalt dwell in the land of Goshen, and thou shalt be near unto me, thou, and thy children, and thy children’s children, and thy flocks, and thy herds, and all that thou hast: 
11  And there will I nourish thee; for yet there are five years of famine; lest thou, and thy household, and all that thou hast, come to poverty. 
12  And, behold, your eyes see, and the eyes of my brother Benjamin, that it is my mouth that speaketh unto you. 
13  And ye shall tell my father of all my glory in Egypt, and of all that ye have seen; and ye shall haste and bring down my father hither. 
14  And he fell upon his brother Benjamin’s neck, and wept; and Benjamin wept upon his neck.
15  Moreover he kissed all his brethren, and wept upon them: and after that his brethren talked with him. ~ Genesis 45:1-15

As South Africans we can learn by what has gone before. The only way this nation will prosper is by putting the past behind us by seeking GOD’s will in our nation and seeking to being restored! We know from scripture GOD says,

14  If my people, which are called by my name, shall humble themselves, and pray, and seek my face, and turn from their wicked ways; then will I hear from heaven, and will forgive their sin, and will heal their land. ~ 2 Chronicles 7:14

Zanzibari slave trader Tippu Tip owned 10,000 slaves [Photo: Wikipedia] From the extensive quote that appears at this link we read hereunder extensively regarding Muslim statistics in slavery. It is sickening to know that this false barbaric religion has persisted in slavery and keeping people in bondage. Where is the worldly outcry? The United Nations would rather be listening to lies from the Palestinian Authority (PA) and all ‘their’ allies the world over who sympathise with the PA murderers and slavers about how Israel kill ‘their’ people and yet they do very little about addressing Muslim slavery and other human trafficking the world over. Islam is not ‘a religion of peace’ but one of ungodly laws and slavery. My plea to Muslims: Repent of your wicked sins against GOD and believe upon the Lord Jesus Christ! Flee to HIM! HE can make you free!

Muslim Statistics (Slavery)

From WikiIslam, the online resource on Islam

Historical

A 19th-century engraving depicting an Arab slave-trading caravan transporting black African slaves across the Sahara [Photo: Wikipedia] A comparison of the Islamic slave trade to the American slave trade reveals some interesting contrasts. While two out of every three slaves shipped across the Atlantic were men, the proportions were reversed in the Islamic slave trade. Two women for every man were enslaved by the Muslims.

While the mortality rate for slaves being transported across the Atlantic was as high as 10%, the percentage of slaves dying in transit in the Trans Sahara and East African slave trade was between 80 and 90%!

While almost all the slaves shipped across the Atlantic were for agricultural work, most of the slaves destined for the Muslim Middle East were for sexual exploitation as concubines, in harems, and for military service.

While many children were born to slaves in the Americas, and millions of their descendants are citizens in Brazil and the USA to this day, very few descendants of the slaves that ended up in the Middle East survive.

While most slaves who went to the Americas could marry and have families, most of the male slaves destined for the Middle East were castrated, and most of the children born to the women were killed at birth.

It is estimated that possibly as many as 11 million Africans were transported across the Atlantic (95% of which went to South and Central America, mainly to Portuguese, Spanish and French possessions. Only 5% of the slaves went to the United States).

However, at least 28 million Africans were enslaved in the Muslim Middle East. As at least 80% of those captured by Muslim slave traders were calculated to have died before reaching the slave markets, it is believed that the death toll from the 14 centuries of Muslim slave raids into Africa could have been over 112 million. When added to the number of those sold in the slave markets, the total number of African victims of the Trans Saharan and East African slave trade could be significantly higher than 140 million people.
. . .
The Barbary Coast Historian Robert Davis in his book "Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters – White Slavery In the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast and Italy", estimates that North African Muslim pirates abducted and enslaved more than 1 million Europeans between 1530 and 1780. These white Christians were seized in a series of raids which depopulated coastal towns from Sicily to Cornwall. Thousands of white Christians in coastal areas were seized every year to work as galley slaves, labourers and concubines for Muslim slave masters in what is today Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria and Libya. Villages and towns on the coast of Italy, Spain, Portugal  and France were the hardest hit, but the Muslim slave raiders also seized people as far afield as Britain, Ireland and Iceland. They even captured 130 American seamen from ships they boarded in the Atlantic between 1785 and 1793.

According to one report, 7000 English people were abducted between 1622 to 1644, many of them ship crews and passengers. But the Corsairs also landed on unguarded beaches, often at night, to snatch the unwary. Almost all the inhabitants of the village of Baltimore, in Ireland, were captured in 1631, and there were other raids in Devon and Cornwall. Many of these white, Christian slaves were put to work in quarries, building sites and galleys and endured malnutrition, disease and mistreatment at the hands of their Muslim slave masters. Many of them were used for public works such as building harbours.

Muslim raiders and White women slaves [Photo: Wikipedia] Female captives were sexually abused in palace harems and others were held as hostages and bargained for ransom. "The most unlucky ended up stuck and forgotten out in the desert, in some sleepy town such as Suez, or in Turkish Sultanate galleys, where some slaves rowed for decades without ever setting foot on shore." Professor Davis estimates that up to 1,25 million Europeans were enslaved by Muslim slave raiders between 1500 to 1800. [1]

___________________________

[The Mediterranean slavery of the 16th and 17th centuries] was not race slavery, but nor was it indiscriminate. It was religious slavery. The human beings kidnapped and sold by the Barbary pirates were fair game because they were Christian. A Christian slave on the Barbary Coast could attain his freedom by converting to Islam, and many did so.
. . .
One of the most impressive parts of Prof. Davis’s book is his computation of the numbers of Europeans enslaved by these Muslim raiders. Combing through the historical sources, he concludes that there were about 35,000 enslaved Christians on the Barbary Coast at any one time. He then sets about estimating attrition rates. Slave numbers declined through four causes: death, escape, redemption (i.e. by ransom), and conversion to Islam. Davis gets annual rates from these causes of 17 percent, 1 percent, 2-3 percent, and 4 percent, respectively. This implies a total number of slaves, from the early 1500s to the late 1700s, of one to one and a quarter million. This is an astonishing number, implying that well into the 17th century, the Mediterranean slave trade was out-producing the Atlantic one. Numbers fell off thereafter, while the transatlantic trade increased; but in its time, the enslavement of European Christians by Muslim North Africans was the main kind of enslavement going on in the world.[2]

___________________________

Christian slavery in Barbary [Photo: Wikipedia]The result, then, is that between 1530 and 1780 there were almost certainly a million and quite possibly as many as a million and a quarter white, European Christians enslaved by the Muslims of the Barbary Coast.
. . .
In fact, even a tentative slave count in Barbary inevitably begs a host of new questions. To begin with, the estimates arrived at here make it clear that for most of the first two centuries of the modern era, nearly as many Europeans were taken forcibly to Barbary and worked or sold as slaves as were West Africans hauled off to labor on plantations in the Americas. In the sixteenth century especially, during which time the Atlantic slave runners still averaged only around 3,200 Africans annually, the corsairs of Algiers – and later Tunis and Tripoli – were regularly snatching that many or more white captives on a single raiding voyage to Sicily, the Balearics, or Valencia.[3]

___________________________

Modern Day

Afghanistan

Thousands of Afghan girls and boys are trafficked into neighboring countries and sold into slavery each year. Though it is taboo, prostitution is alive and thriving – at the cost of those forced to work in it.[4]

October 2012

– – – – – – – – – – – –
Arabs and their slaves [Photo: WikiIslam]Egypt

Egypt has come in second place in the trading of women, according to Azza Soliman, the national coordinator of fighting female human trafficking and trade.

Soliman said that Egypt has turned from a transit country to a “residence country” for the women
. . .
Experts say the number of women trafficked into neighboring countries is on the rise as wealthy Arabs take advantage of difficult economic situations, marry young girls with the intent to use them in the sex trade.

Makram Ouda, executive director of the Jordanian Women Union said that they have found 70 Egyptian women who were trafficked into Jordan and kept there as part of the sex trade network after their husbands “bought” them from their parents.

And while the marriage contracts are legitimate, these new brides find themselves working either as beggars or as sex workers.[5]

October 2012

– – – – – – – – – – – –

Indonesia

Data from End Child Prostitution, Child Pornography and the Trafficking of Children (Ecpat) show up to 70,000 children in Indonesia may have fallen victim to sexual exploitation.
. . .

The group says the majority of victims are from West, Central and East Java, West Kalimantan and North Sumatra. In many cases, the children are promised work as domestic workers but end up in prostitution dens.

More than 3,900 children here have fallen victim to human trafficking in the first half of the year, according to the International Organization for Migration. The country tops the UN body’s list of child trafficking cases.[6]

November 2011

– – – – – – – – – – – –
Mauritania

A Muslim slave trader [WikiIslam] Officially, slavery has long been abolished in Mauritania, but the law has never been enforced and there are an estimated 600,000 slaves, almost one in five of the country’s 3.2 million people, almost 150 years since the American civil war.

Change will come too late to heal Mrs Sayed’s ruined life. But she knows that victory for Mr Boulkheir could transform the future for the daughter and grandchildren whom she had to leave behind in captivity when she finally summoned the courage to escape.

A black African of Mauritania’s Haratine caste, she was born into slavery about 40 years ago – she is illiterate and has only a hazy idea of time – and grew up as the property of an Arabic-speaking Berber family, in an oasis town deep in the desert.

While her master’s children went to school, she was cooking, cleaning and washing from dawn to dusk. She slept on the floor, and suffered beatings.
. . .
Slave-holding has been abolished three times, first by the country’s former French overlords and then twice by different rulers of the independent state, most recently in 2007. But the law has never been enforced and no slave owner has ever been prosecuted.
. . .
Centuries of indoctrination have persuaded the Sahara’s captives that slavery is religiously ordained – slaves are taught that if they run away they will be barred from heaven. As a local saying puts it: "Paradise is under your master’s foot." In some remote places a runaway will still be hunted down by nomad masters.
. . .
A Berber driver, who would only give his first name, Mohammed, defended slavery. "It is our religion and custom," he said.

"Why does the international community try to stop it? The slaves are better off with their masters. This is their fate. When they leave, they starve."[7]

July 2009

– – – – – – – – – – – –
Pakistan

Officials at the U.S. embassy in Islamabad say at least three landlords have held as many as 170 bonded farmworkers at gunpoint on their estates in the country’s southeast Sindh province since late September.
. . .

The crisis began after the workers’ advocates successfully petitioned three district courts to declare as illegal the debts that the landlords were using to compel the workers into indentured servitude. Those debts average around 1,000 Pakistani rupees — roughly $12. The hostages, a third of whom are children, some as young as 4 months old, are landless peasants, known as haari in Urdu. According to Ghulam Hyder, a spokesman for Pakistan’s Green Rural Development Organization, the landlords have killed one hostage already and are threatening to kill the others unless they drop the cases and return to work.
. . .
A 2004 study by the International Labour Office (ILO) estimated that there are up to a million haari families in Sindh alone, the majority living in conditions of debt bondage, which the U.N. defines as modern-day slavery. Last fall, Pakistan’s Daily Times newspaper quoted the labor minister of neighboring Punjab province as saying that landlords hold millions of forced laborers in "private prisons" across the country.

While the nation’s 1992 Bonded Labour System Act mandates five-year sentences for violators, Pakistani officials have yet to record a single conviction. "The police are turning a blind eye on the issue," says Hyder[8]

October 2009

Child labour: According to a study by SPARC, most of the child domestic workers in Pakistan are aged between 10-15 years (sometimes five years old children are also employed). In the absence of official statistics, it is impossible to assess the magnitude of bonded labour, but it is estimated that 1.7 million people are engaged in bonded labour in Pakistan.[9]

September 2012

– – – – – – – – – – – –
Saudi Arabia

A Meccan merchant (right) and his Circassian slave. Entitled, ‘Vornehmner Kaufmann mit seinem cirkassischen Sklaven’ [Distinguished merchant and his circassian slave] by Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje, ca. 1888. [Photo: Wikipedia] Children between five and 12 years old are sold to wealthy men in Saudi Arabia, where they are held as sex slaves. When they reach maturity, and many are thrown on the street and they end quickly as a prostitute.

Save the Children appeal to the Norwegian and Swedish ministers take up the issue with their Saudi counterparts, and asks private companies to take up the exploitation of children when they hit their business.

– I am not surprised by the information about the existence of such traffic to Saudi Arabia and other countries in the region, particularly in light of [the fact] that marriage with children is widespread and accepted, “said Sannah Johnson, regional director of the Middle East for the Swedish Save the Children.

A well-organized network of traffickers supplying the Arab market with child brides from the North African country of Mauritania, says U.S. diplomats. Retrieved as sex slaves in their thousands from Yemen, in addition to that there is an extensive sex industry in Yemen offering sex with minors to rich men from the Gulf states, the Wikileaks documents and Aftenposten Bergens Tidende has access to.[10]

May 2011

– – – – – – – – – – – –
Sudan

Unlike the West, slavery is still alive and thriving in the Islamic East. "The classification of the conflict as a "holy war" — a jihad against the Christian South and its allies in the Nuba Mountains – legitimized in the eyes of many Northern Muslims the revival of the centuries-old practice of taking slaves as war booty."

In slave raids on Southern villages, conducted by government-backed Arab militias known as murahaleen, estimated hundreds of thousands of blacks, mostly women and children, were captured, transported to the North and enslaved.

Since 1995, AASG’s partner, Christian Solidarity International (CSI), has been working to free Sudan’s slaves. The organization provides funds to the indigenous network of Africans and Arabs who cooperate on returning the captives. CSI’s efforts resulted in the liberation of over 80,000 slaves.

In 2005, under guidance of the US Government, the North and the South signed a Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) that ended the war and provided for Southern self-determination. The CPA ended the slave raids, but left the fate of those already in bondage unresolved. According to the recent Congressional testimony of CSI’s CEO Dr. John Eibner, approximately 35,000 are still serving their masters in parts of Southern Darfur and Kordofan.

In the week prior to the independence, CSI liberated 404 slaves.[11]

July 2011

– – – – – – – – – – – –
Yemen

13th century slave market in the Yemen [Photo: WikiIslam] Officially, slavery was abolished back in 1962 but a judge’s decision to pass on the title deed of a "slave" from one master to another has blown the lid off the hidden bondage of hundreds of Yemenis.

The judge in the town of Hajja, which is home to some 300 slaves, according to residents, said he had certified the transfer only because the new owner planned to free the slave.

But his decision has triggered a campaign by local human right activists.

A 2009 report by the human rights ministry found that males and females were still enslaved in the provinces of Hudaydah and Hajja, in northwest Yemen — the Arab world’s most impoverished country.
. . .
"We are still in the process of trying to count the numbers of slaves," the coordinator of rights group Hood, Mohammed Naji Allaw, told AFP, explaining that slaves were "owned by title deeds, or inherited within families."

The news website almasdaronline earlier spoke of "500 slaves" across Yemen.

In addition to "slaves whose owner can use them however he wants," the ministry report also refers to other groups subjected to slave-like conditions, although they are not bound by documents.

One group includes "former slaves who have been officially set free, but remain at the service of their former masters, who continue to feed them but never pay them wages," the report said.

Allaw said such people are still referred to as "the slaves of such and such a family, or the slaves of such and such a tribe."

Enslaved groups are descendants of an empire which ruled Yemen in the 11th and 12th centuries, with their origins in ancient Ethiopia, across the Red Sea from Yemen. They were enslaved after their empire was defeated.[12]

July 2010

Conclusion

In concluding this part of our investigations it is established that the Christian perspective of ‘slavery’ is none other than the Biblical truth of servants in servitude. It is totally opposite to what Marxist black South African political parties advocate by demonising whites. We also learn that the wicked and evil slave practices that black Africans decry against all whites actually were instituted by black Africans and Arab slave traders themselves. Wicked white ship-owners then joined the ‘lucrative’ business of dealing in human merchandise for evil and inhumane gain! However, one cannot tar and feather every person from any particular people group or skin pigmentation (race) for not all hold to the same practices. There is good and there is evil found in every walk of life, but white people are the scapegoat for another’s evil and wicked practices. We end with the following quote,

“The slaves in Africa, I suppose, are nearly in the proportion of three to one to the freemen. They claim no reward for their services except food and clothing, and are treated with kindness or severity, according to the good or bad disposition of their masters. Custom, however, has established certain rules with regard to the treatment of slaves, which it is thought dishonourable to violate. Thus the domestic slaves, or such as are born in a man’s own house, are treated with more lenity than those which are purchased with money. … But these restrictions on the power of the master extend not to the care of prisoners taken in war, nor to that of slaves purchased with money. All these unfortunate beings are considered as strangers and foreigners, who have no right to the protection of the law, and may be treated with severity, or sold to a stranger, according to the pleasure of their owners.”

Travels in the Interior of Africa, Mungo Park, Travels in the Interior of Africa v. II, Chapter XXII – War and Slavery.

Finally free - Mende Nazer was abducted and sold into slavery in Sudan at the age of 12. She has been granted asylum in UK. [Photo: WikiIslam]Finally free – Mende Nazer was abducted and sold into slavery in Sudan at the age of 12. She has been granted asylum in UK. [Photo: WikiIslam]

Slaves in Africa are “three to one to the freemen”, and whites do not own them! Go figure!Soli Deo Gloria

_____________________

Footnotes:

[1] Precis of the Archives of the Cape of Good Hope, December 1651 – December 1655, Riebeeck’s Journal – by H. C. V. Leibrandt, Keeper of the Archives. Part I. Cape Town : W. A. Richards & Sons, Government Printers, 1897. pp100-171.

[2] Strong’s Complete Word Study Concordance, Expanded Edition: James Strong, LL.D., S.T.D.: Editor – Warren Baker, Copyright © 2004, Published by AMG Publishers.

[3] Glossary: Field Guide to the Battlefields of South Africa – by Nicki von der Heyde, Published by Struik Travel & Heritage (© Penguin Random House 2013)

[4] Kafir, WikiIslam – References:

  • [1] "…Kafir: Literally means "a disbeliever". In Islam it refers to one who rejects Allah and who does not believe in Muhammad sallallahu alayhi wa sallam as the final messenger of Allah.…" – Islamic Glossary
  • [2] "…kafir noun (pl=kuffar) 1. (Islam) infidel, Infidel, pagan, non-believer; a non-Muslim aside from ahl al-kitab (Christians, Jews, etc.). 2. (Islam) Infidel, pagan, non-believer; any non-Muslim. Ref: Shaykh Al-Islam ibn Taymiyyah (Rahimullah) v27 p264: "Whosoever does not forbid people from the deen of the Jews and Christians after the prophethood of the messenger Muhammad (saw) nor declares them kafir nor hates them, he is not a Muslim by the consensus of ALL Muslims, their scholars and the general public."…"AllWords.com – kafir
  • [3] ""…the permissive people, who do not believe in any command or prohibition at all and refer to the Divine will and decree as an excuse for their evil deeds, are worse off than the Jews, Christians and Arab mushrikeen, because even though the latter are kaafirs, they still believe in some kind of command and prohibition…" – Atheism is a greater sin than shirk – Islam Q&A, Fatwa No. 113901
  • [4] "…But it is not permissible to marry her, as she is still a Kafir (non-Muslim) and has not yet embraced Islam wholeheartedly without any doubt.…" – Thinking of marrying an atheist – Dr. Abdullah Al-faqih, Islam Web, Fatwa No. 88328, July 21, 2004
  • [5] "…This is something that is well known among the Muslims, and they are unanimously agreed that the Christians are kaafirs, and even that those who do not regard them as kaafirs are also kaafirs…" – Qur’an, Hadith and Scholars:People of the Book

    [5] Islamic law: Slavery, WikiIslam – References:

  • [145] "….I married a virgin woman in her veil. When I entered upon her, I found her pregnant. (I mentioned this to the Prophet). The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: She will get the dower, for you made her vagina lawful for you. The child will be your slave…." – Sunan Abu Dawud 11:2126
  • [146] Shaikh Salih al-Fawzan’s "affirmation of slavery" was found on page 24 of "Taming a Neo-Qutubite Fanatic Part 1" when accessed on February 17, 2007 http://www.salafipublications.com/sps/downloads/pdf/GRV07000
  • [148] "Zad al-Ma’ad" by Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya Part 1, Pages 114-116
  • [149] "Zad al-Ma’ad" by Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya Part 1, Pages 114-116
  • [150] "….Waqidi has informed us that Abu Bakr has narrated that the messenger of Allah (PBUH) had sexual intercourse with Mariyyah [his Coptic slave] in the house of Hafsah…." – Tabaqat v. 8 p. 223 Publisher Entesharat-e Farhang va Andisheh Tehran 1382 solar h ( 2003) Translator Dr. Mohammad Mahdavi Damghan
  • [151] "….Allah’s Apostle sent someone to a woman telling her to "Order her slave, carpenter, to prepare a wooden pulpit for him to sit on."…." – Sahih Bukhari 1:8:439
  • [152] "…."Do you know, O Allah’s Apostle, that I [Maimuna bint Al-Harith] have manumitted my slave-girl?" He said, "Have you really?" She replied in the affirmative. He said, "You would have got more reward if you had given her (i.e. the slave-girl) to one of your maternal uncles." – Sahih Bukhari 3:47:765
  • [153] "….Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) said: Sell him to me. And he bought him for two black slaves,…." – Sahih Muslim 10:3901
  • [156] E. Benjamin Skinner – Pakistan’s Forgotten Plight: Modern-Day Slavery – TIME, October 27, 2009
  • [157] Jamal al-Jaberi – ‘Slaves’ in impoverished Yemen still dream of freedom – AFP, July 20, 2010
  • [158] Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean; the Barbary Coast and Italy 1500 – 1800, by Robert Davis, Palgrave MacMillan, 2004
  • [159] The Scourge of Slavery – Christian Action, 2004 Vol 4
  • [160] Islam’s Black Slaves, by Ronald Segal, Farrar, New York, 2001

    [6] Muslim Statistics (Slavery), WikiIslam – References:

    1. The Scourge of Slavery – Christian Action, 2004 Vol 4
    2. John Derbyshire – Fear of the Horizon (Book Review) – National Review Online, September 13, 2006
    3. Robert C. Davis, "Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast and Italy, 1500-1800", New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003, pp. 23-24
    4. Waslat Hasrat-Nazimi – Human trafficking, prostitution thrive in Afghanistan – Deutsche Welle, October 24, 2012
    5. Made Arya Kencana – Measures to Protect Children From Sex Exploitation ‘Still Weak’ – Jakarta Globe, November 4, 2011
    6. E. Benjamin Skinner – Pakistan’s Forgotten Plight: Modern-Day Slavery – TIME, October 27, 2009
    7. Jamal al-Jaberi – ‘Slaves’ in impoverished Yemen still dream of freedom – AFP, July 20, 2010

    Related Blog Posts:

    The Gospel comes to South Africa (13 December 2012)

    Answer to Sandile ~ Part 1 (3 June 2013)

    The Gospel . . . Racism and South African History (8 March 2016)

    365 Years Ago Today . . . (6 April 2017)

  • Human Rights Day 2019

    HUMAN RIGHTS DAY

    ~ Are all treated equally? ~

    ~ With Compliments ~

    Repent and Believe Logo

    Gary Stephen Crous

    Cell: +27 (0) 72 221 1233

    E-mail: luke9.23evangelism@gmail.com

    Website: http://www.luke923evangelism.wordpress.com

    Introduction

    Human Rights Day is celebrated as a public holiday in South Africa each year on March 21. As part of this introduction an extensive quote that appears at the Parliament of the Republic of South Africa’s website[1] is quoted here to record what the government regards as human rights, quote:

    What are human rights?

    Human rights are rights that everyone should have simply because they are human. In 1948, the United Nations defined 30 articles of human rights in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. It established universal human rights on the basis of humanity, freedom, justice, and peace.

    South Africa has included indivisible human rights in our own Bill of Rights, Chapter 2 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996. The articles of our Constitution can only be changed by a two-thirds majority in Parliament, which means it is difficult for anyone, including the government, to take away the basic rights of a citizen.

    The Bill of Rights preserved in our Constitution is the cornerstone of our constitutional and representative democracy. The Constitution as our supreme law means that no laws may be passed that goes against it. The Bill of Rights also comprehensively addresses South Africa’s history of oppression, colonialism, slavery, racism and sexism and other forms of human violations. The Bill of Rights embeds the rights of all people in our country in an enduring affirmation of the democratic values of human dignity, equality and freedom.

    Human Rights Day, 21 March

    Human Rights Day in South Africa is historically linked with 21 March 1960, and the events of Sharpeville. On that day 69 people died and 180 were wounded when police fired on a peaceful crowd that had gathered in protest against the Pass laws. This day marked an affirmation by ordinary people, rising in unison to proclaim their rights. It became an iconic date in our country’s history that today we commemorate as Human Rights Day as a reminder of our rights and the cost paid for our treasured human rights. [. . .]

    Modern era

    When South Africa held its first democratic election, with Nelson Mandela elected as its first democratic President, 21 March, Human Rights Day was officially proclaimed a public holiday.

    On Human Rights Day, South Africans are asked to reflect on their rights, to protect their rights and the rights of all people from violation, irrespective of race, gender, religion, sexual orientation, whether they are foreign national or not – human rights apply to everyone, equally.

    We must remain vigilant and report abuse and cruelty, such as human trafficking, child labour, forced labour and violence against women, children, and the aged and other vulnerable groupings of people.

    What are your rights?

    In terms of the Bill of Rights everyone has a right to life, equality and human dignity.

    •All persons have a right to citizenship and security. Persons and groups are entitled to freedom of assembly, association, belief and opinion, and expression. They have the right to demonstrate, picket and petition; everyone has the right to be free from forced labour, servitude and slavery.

    •All persons have a right to privacy and to exercise political rights; all have a right to access to information and just administration action. They have rights when arrested, detained and accused, and must have access to courts.

    •All have a right to freedom of movement and residence and of trade, occupation and profession. In the workplace everyone has a right to engage in trade unions and labour movements. Anyone has the right to purchase property anywhere, and to a basic education. They have a right to language and culture and communities; and not least, freedom of religion and belief. The Bill of Rights also specifies the rights of persons belonging to cultural, religious or linguistic communities and the rights of children. In addition, there are specific laws to safeguard women and protect children.

    •Protected rights include a healthy environment; housing, health care, food, water and social security.

    Parliament’s Role in Human Rights Day

    Parliament is guided by the values and principles of the Constitution. The tasks of Parliament are to represent and empower the people, and to facilitate meaningful and active involvement of civil society in its processes. The Constitutional functions of Parliament are to pass laws and oversee executive action. Parliament must ensure that democratic processes become well-known and that they reach all citizens of the country and that the civil liberties of every citizen is maintained.

    According to the foregoing manifesto, are all treated equally when it comes to human rights? We will look at what transpires everyday in violation of rights of the citizens of South Africa and see that man-made laws or rights are in constant violation of the Creator GOD’s sovereign Law, statutes and decrees.

    Abortions

    Abortion We are told that every person has the right to life, yet abortions (which are the murder of unborn children) are practiced in hospitals and back street allies at the expense of taxpayers’ money and in ‘illegal’ abortuaries, respectively, where they who have no voice are butchered by evil and wicked executioners including the child’s murderous mother who is exercising ‘pro-choice’! Where are the rights for the unborn child who would want ‘pro-life’? Why punish the child for the sins of the parents? Children are a gift from the Creator, “Lo, children are an heritage of the LORD: and the fruit of the womb is his reward. As arrows are in the hand of a mighty man; so are children of the youth. Happy is the man that hath his quiver full of them: they shall not be ashamed, but they shall speak with the enemies in the gate.” (Psalm 127:3-5).

    Murders

    Whilst 69 people lost their lives at Sharpeville through the wicked hearts of NP Apartheid forces, it is no different to the thousands who lost their lives through the ANC’s MK terrorist attacks upon soft civilian targets in the years that followed. How many of these dead were unrepentant sinners that were ushered into hell for all eternity by evil and wicked barbarous executioners? The total deaths due to political violence during the Apartheid years from 1948-1994, according to the Human Rights Committee (HRC) statistics, totalled 21,000 political deaths – of whom 14,000 people died during the five-year transition process from 1990 to 1994. Further analyses of the period June 1990 to July 1993 indicates a total of 8,580 (92%) of the 9,325 violent deaths were caused by Africans killing Africans, or as the news media often calls it, “Black on Black” violence. However, the security forces caused 518 deaths (5.6%) throughout this period.[2] The SA Police statistics for 1994-2000 record violent hate crimes especially against white Boers at 174,220. The murder statistics from 2005-2016 total 211,161.[3] [Unable to obtain statistics for the period 2001-2004 ~ Ed]

    Murder Graph Graph of South Africa’s murder rate (murders per 100,000 people) over a 100 year period from 1915 to 2015. The murder rate increased rapidly in the 1980s reaching its peak in 1993 then decreasing until bottoming out in 2011.[4]

    Where are the rights of the citizens of South Africa who were butchered and had their lives taken when they had the right to life? GOD’s Holy Word tells us, no murderer shall see the kingdom of GOD, “But the fearful, and unbelieving, and the abominable, and murderers, and whoremongers, and sorcerers, and idolaters, and all liars, shall have their part in the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone: which is the second death.” (Revelation 21:8).

    The ANC government has failed GOD and the citizens of South Africa, for we are told, “And he changeth the times and the seasons: he removeth kings, and setteth up kings: he giveth wisdom unto the wise, and knowledge to them that know understanding:” (Daniel 2:21). We also read, “But God is the judge: he putteth down one, and setteth up another.” (Psalm 75:7). The government of the day has a responsibility before GOD to safeguard its citizens for we read, “Let every soul be subject unto the higher powers. For there is no power but of God: the powers that be are ordained of God. Whosoever therefore resisteth the power, resisteth the ordinance of God: and they that resist shall receive to themselves damnation. For rulers are not a terror to good works, but to the evil. Wilt thou then not be afraid of the power? do that which is good, and thou shalt have praise of the same: For he is the minister of God to thee for good. But if thou do that which is evil, be afraid; for he beareth not the sword in vain: for he is the minister of God, a revenger to execute wrath upon him that doeth evil. Wherefore ye must needs be subject, not only for wrath, but also for conscience sake.” (Romans 13:1-5).

    Religion, Beliefs and Homosexuality

    In the manifesto of human rights, the citizens are safeguarded “to protect their rights and the rights of all people from violation, irrespective of race, gender, religion, sexual orientation, whether they are foreign national or not – human rights apply to everyone, equally.” However, everyone is not equal before the law when it comes to Christianity and homosexuals. The wicked practice of homosexuality takes preference over the conscience and beliefs of Christians when GOD’s Word commands and states that, “If a man also lie with mankind, as he lieth with a woman, both of them have committed an abomination: they shall surely be put to death; their blood shall be upon them.” (Leviticus 20:13).

    Gay Pride

    GOD says that He hands homosexuals over, “For this cause God gave them up unto vile affections: for even their women did change the natural use into that which is against nature: And likewise also the men, leaving the natural use of the woman, burned in their lust one toward another; men with men working that which is unseemly, and receiving in themselves that recompence of their error which was meet.” (Romans 1:26,27).

    Yet if a Christian stands by their belief, convictions and conscience to warn a sodomite of GOD’s judgment and eternal justice in the lake of fire, or refuses to offer a service to a GOD-hating lawbreaker, then the Christian is persecuted for standing for Truth in righteousness to please his/her GOD. A stern warning, “Woe unto them that call evil good, and good evil; that put darkness for light, and light for darkness; that put bitter for sweet, and sweet for bitter! Woe unto them that are wise in their own eyes, and prudent in their own sight! Woe unto them that are mighty to drink wine, and men of strength to mingle strong drink: Which justify the wicked for reward, and take away the righteousness of the righteous from him! (Isaiah 5:20-23).

    Conclusion

    As can be seen from this tract, not everyone is treated equally with human rights. Some have more rights than others and we have not even looked at the vices that permeate our community spaces where we are bombarded with immodest dress that borders on public nudity, vulgarity and profanity, pornography, prostitution, xenophobia, drugs and alcohol abuse, occultism and witchcraft, and ancestral and idol worship that are all in violation of GOD’s Ten Commandments. We are reminded, “And as it is appointed unto men once to die, but after this the judgment:” (Hebrews 9:27) that GOD must judge according to His Holy and Righteous standard, “For the wages of sin is death; but the gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.” (Romans 6:23). “Know ye not, that to whom ye yield yourselves servants to obey, his servants ye are to whom ye obey; whether of sin unto death, or of obedience unto righteousness?” (Romans 6:16). For, “He that committeth sin is of the devil; for the devil sinneth from the beginning. For this purpose the Son of God was manifested, that he might destroy the works of the devil. Whosoever is born of God doth not commit sin; for his seed remaineth in him: and he cannot sin, because he is born of God. In this the children of God are manifest, and the children of the devil: whosoever doeth not righteousness is not of God, neither he that loveth not his brother.” (1 John 3:8-10). To be truly set free from one’s sins, Jesus said, “I am the way, the truth, and the life: no man cometh unto the Father, but by me.” (John 14:6). “And ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free. … If the Son therefore shall make you free, ye shall be free indeed.” (John 8:32,36). Today, REPENT and call upon the name of Jesus Christ to save you and give you peace with GOD. That is your only hope!

    Soli Deo Gloria ________________

    Footnotes:

    1 https://www.parliament.gov.za/project-event-details/2

    2 http://www.volkstaat.net/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=746:how-many-blacks-died-under-apartheid-rsa&catid=89:apartheid-eng&Itemid=147

    3 http://www.crimestatssa.com/national.php

    4 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crime_in_South_Africa

    Published by Repent and Believe South Africa

    Please visit the website for more information.

    This tract may be copied for free distribution if it is copied in full

    Daily Devotions by C. H. Spurgeon

    C. H. Spurgeon March 8

    Morning

    “We must through much tribulation enter into the kingdom of God.”
    – Act 14:22

    22  Confirming the souls of the disciples, and exhorting them to continue in the faith, and that we must through much tribulation enter into the kingdom of God. ~ Act 14:22

    God’s people have their trials. It was never designed by God, when he chose his people, that they should be an untried people. They were chosen in the furnace of affliction; they were never chosen to worldly peace and earthly joy. Freedom from sickness and the pains of mortality was never promised them; but when their Lord drew up the charter of privileges, he included chastisements amongst the things to which they should inevitably be heirs. Trials are a part of our lot; they were predestinated for us in Christ’s last legacy. So surely as the stars are fashioned by his hands, and their orbits fixed by him, so surely are our trials allotted to us: he has ordained their season and their place, their intensity and the effect they shall have upon us. Good men must never expect to escape troubles; if they do, they will be disappointed, for none of their predecessors have been without them. Mark the patience of Job; remember Abraham, for he had his trials, and by his faith under them, he became the “Father of the faithful.” Note well the biographies of all the patriarchs, prophets, apostles, and martyrs, and you shall discover none of those whom God made vessels of mercy, who were not made to pass through the fire of affliction. It is ordained of old that the cross of trouble should be engraved on every vessel of mercy, as the royal mark whereby the King’s vessels of honour are distinguished. But although tribulation is thus the path of God’s children, they have the comfort of knowing that their Master has traversed it before them; they have his presence and sympathy to cheer them, his grace to support them, and his example to teach them how to endure; and when they reach “the kingdom,” it will more than make amends for the “much tribulation” through which they passed to enter it.

    Evening

    “She called his name Benoni (son of sorrow), but his father called him Benjamin (son of my right hand).”
    – Gen 35:18

    18  And it came to pass, as her soul was in departing, (for she died) that she called his name Benoni: but his father called him Benjamin. ~ Genesis 35:18

    To every matter there is a bright as well as a dark side. Rachel was overwhelmed with the sorrow of her own travail and death; Jacob, though weeping the mother’s loss, could see the mercy of the child’s birth. It is well for us if, while the flesh mourns over trials, our faith triumphs in divine faithfulness. Samson’s lion yielded honey, and so will our adversities, if rightly considered. The stormy sea feeds multitudes with its fishes; the wild wood blooms with beauteous florets; the stormy wind sweeps away the pestilence, and the biting frost loosens the soil. Dark clouds distil bright drops, and black earth grows gay flowers. A vein of good is to be found in every mine of evil. Sad hearts have peculiar skill in discovering the most disadvantageous point of view from which to gaze upon a trial; if there were only one slough in the world, they would soon be up to their necks in it, and if there were only one lion in the desert they would hear it roar. About us all there is a tinge of this wretched folly, and we are apt, at times, like Jacob, to cry, “All these things are against me.” Faith’s way of walking is to cast all care upon the Lord, and then to anticipate good results from the worst calamities. Like Gideon’s men, she does not fret over the broken pitcher, but rejoices that the lamp blazes forth the more. Out of the rough oyster-shell of difficulty she extracts the rare pearl of honour, and from the deep ocean-caves of distress she uplifts the priceless coral of experience. When her flood of prosperity ebbs, she finds treasures hid in the sands; and when her sun of delight goes down, she turns her telescope of hope to the starry promises of heaven. When death itself appears, faith points to the light of resurrection beyond the grave, thus making our dying Benoni to be our living Benjamin.

    Soli Deo Gloria

    Daily Devotions by C. H. Spurgeon

    C. H. Spurgeon February 26

    Morning

    “Salvation is of the Lord.”
    – Jon 2:9

    9  But I will sacrifice unto thee with the voice of thanksgiving; I will pay that that I have vowed. Salvation is of the LORD. ~ Jonah 2:9

    Salvation is the work of God. It is he alone who quickens the soul “dead in trespasses and sins,” and it is he also who maintains the soul in its spiritual life. He is both “Alpha and Omega.” “Salvation is of the Lord.” If I am prayerful, God makes me prayerful; if I have graces, they are God’s gifts to me; if I hold on in a consistent life, it is because he upholds me with his hand. I do nothing whatever towards my own preservation, except what God himself first does in me. Whatever I have, all my goodness is of the Lord alone. Wherein I sin, that is my own; but wherein I act rightly, that is of God, wholly and completely. If I have repulsed a spiritual enemy, the Lord’s strength nerved my arm. Do I live before men a consecrated life? It is not I, but Christ who liveth in me. Am I sanctified? I did not cleanse myself: God’s Holy Spirit sanctifies me. Am I weaned from the world? I am weaned by God’s chastisements sanctified to my good. Do I grow in knowledge? The great Instructor teaches me. All my jewels were fashioned by heavenly art. I find in God all that I want; but I find in myself nothing but sin and misery. “He only is my rock and my salvation.” Do I feed on the Word? That Word would be no food for me unless the Lord made it food for my soul, and helped me to feed upon it. Do I live on the manna which comes down from heaven? What is that manna but Jesus Christ himself incarnate, whose body and whose blood I eat and drink? Am I continually receiving fresh increase of strength? Where do I gather my might? My help cometh from heaven’s hills: without Jesus I can do nothing. As a branch cannot bring forth fruit except it abide in the vine, no more can I, except I abide in him. What Jonah learned in the great deep, let me learn this morning in my closet: “Salvation is of the Lord.”

    Evening

    “Behold, if the leprosy have covered all his flesh, he shall pronounce him clean that hath the plague.”
    – Lev 13:13

    13  Then the priest shall consider: and, behold, if the leprosy have covered all his flesh, he shall pronounce him clean that hath the plague: it is all turned white: he is clean. ~ Leviticus 13:13

    Strange enough this regulation appears, yet there was wisdom in it, for the throwing out of the disease proved that the constitution was sound. This evening it may be well for us to see the typical teaching of so singular a rule. We, too, are lepers, and may read the law of the leper as applicable to ourselves. When a man sees himself to be altogether lost and ruined, covered all over with the defilement of sin, and in no part free from pollution; when he disclaims all righteousness of his own, and pleads guilty before the Lord, then he is clean through the blood of Jesus, and the grace of God. Hidden, unfelt, unconfessed iniquity is the true leprosy; but when sin is seen and felt, it has received its deathblow, and the Lord looks with eyes of mercy upon the soul afflicted with it. Nothing is more deadly than self-righteousness, or more hopeful than contrition. We must confess that we are “nothing else but sin,” for no confession short of this will be the whole truth; and if the Holy Spirit be at work with us, convincing us of sin, there will be no difficulty about making such an acknowledgment -it will spring spontaneously from our lips. What comfort does the text afford to truly awakened sinners: the very circumstance which so grievously discouraged them is here turned into a sign and symptom of a hopeful state! Stripping comes before clothing; digging out the foundation is the first thing in building-and a thorough sense of sin is one of the earliest works of grace in the heart. O thou poor leprous sinner, utterly destitute of a sound spot, take heart from the text, and come as thou art to Jesus-

    “For let our debts be what they may, however great or small,
    As soon as we have nought to pay, our Lord forgives us all.
    ‘Tis perfect poverty alone that sets the soul at large:
    While we can call one mite our own, we have no full discharge.

    Soli Deo Gloria

    Daily Devotions by C. H. Spurgeon

    C. H. Spurgeon February 14

    Morning

    “And his allowance was a continual allowance given him of the king, a daily rate for every day, all the days of his life.”
    – 2Ki 25:30

    30  And his allowance was a continual allowance given him of the king, a daily rate for every day, all the days of his life. ~ 2 Kings 25:30 

    Jehoiachin was not sent away from the king’s palace with a store to last him for months, but his provision was given him as a daily pension. Herein he well pictures the happy position of all the Lord’s people. A daily portion is all that a man really wants. We do not need tomorrow’s supplies; that day has not yet dawned, and its wants are as yet unborn. The thirst which we may suffer in the month of June does not need to be quenched in February, for we do not feel it yet; if we have enough for each day as the days arrive we shall never know want. Sufficient for the day is all that we can enjoy. We cannot eat or drink or wear more than the day’s supply of food and raiment; the surplus gives us the care of storing it, and the anxiety of watching against a thief. One staff aids a traveller, but a bundle of staves is a heavy burden. Enough is not only as good as a feast, but is all that the greatest glutton can truly enjoy. This is all that we should expect; a craving for more than this is ungrateful. When our Father does not give us more, we should be content with his daily allowance. Jehoiachin’s case is ours, we have a sure portion, a portion given us of the king, a gracious portion, and a perpetual portion. Here is surely ground for thankfulness.

    Beloved Christian reader, in matters of grace you need a daily supply. You have no store of strength. Day by day must you seek help from above. It is a very sweet assurance that a daily portion is provided for you. In the word, through the ministry, by meditation, in prayer, and waiting upon God you shall receive renewed strength. In Jesus all needful things are laid up for you. Then enjoy your continual allowance. Never go hungry while the daily bread of grace is on the table of mercy.

    Evening

    “She was healed immediately.”
    – Luk 8:47

    47  And when the woman saw that she was not hid, she came trembling, and falling down before him, she declared unto him before all the people for what cause she had touched him, and how she was healed immediately. ~ Luke 8:47

    One of the most touching and teaching of the Saviour’s miracles is before us to-night. The woman was very ignorant. She imagined that virtue came out of Christ by a law of necessity, without his knowledge or direct will. Moreover, she was a stranger to the generosity of Jesus’ character, or she would not have gone behind to steal the cure which he was so ready to bestow. Misery should always place itself right in the face of mercy. Had she known the love of Jesus’ heart, she would have said, “I have but to put myself where he can see me-his omniscience will teach him my case, and his love at once will work my cure.” We admire her faith, but we marvel at her ignorance. After she had obtained the cure, she rejoiced with trembling: glad was she that the divine virtue had wrought a marvel in her; but she feared lest Christ should retract the blessing, and put a negative upon the grant of his grace: little did she comprehend the fulness of his love! We have not so clear a view of him as we could wish; we know not the heights and depths of his love; but we know of a surety that he is too good to withdraw from a trembling soul the gift which it has been able to obtain. But here is the marvel of it: little as was her knowledge, her faith, because it was real faith, saved her, and saved her at once. There was no tedious delay-faith’s miracle was instantaneous. If we have faith as a grain of mustard seed, salvation is our present and eternal possession. If in the list of the Lord’s children we are written as the feeblest of the family, yet, being heirs through faith, no power, human or devilish, can eject us from salvation. If we dare not lean our heads upon his bosom with John, yet if we can venture in the press behind him, and touch the hem of his garment, we are made whole. Courage, timid one! thy faith hath saved thee; go in peace. “Being justified by faith, we have peace with God.”

    Soli Deo Gloria

    The Land Issue: South Africa 1652 – present: Part 3

    Recapping

    Flag of the Dutch East India Company svg Welcome to Part 3 of this examination into South African History. We request that you kindly read the preceding parts to gain a proper understanding and the correct context in which this part continues the documented course of events. The information has been gleaned from archived documents translated from the original autographs of the Journal of Johan van Riebeeck and others.

    In Part 1 we looked at the meticulous planning by the Dutch in the years 1649-1651 prior to Johan van Riebeeck and the designated parties sailing from Texel in the Netherlands on their voyage to the Cape of Good Hope to establish a refreshment station as undertaken by the VOC (Dutch East Indies Company).

    In Part 2 we undertook the voyage from Texel in the Netherlands on 14th December 1651 sailing on the flag ship of the fleet, the Drommedaris, to the landing at the Cape of Good Hope on 6th April 1652. We also looked extensively at the lifestyle of the Dutch settlers and their work ethic, their relationships with the local Khoikhoi and San natives and other people groups from these clans. We looked also at the relationship between the Dutch and a native interpreter named Herry. This took our learning adventure into the early days of January 1653.

    Light and darkness

    Khoikhoi sketch In Part 3 we now once again pick up the historical account from the Journal of Johan van Riebeeck[1] as we look into the lives of the early Dutch settlers and their near neighbours – the Khoikhoi, the San, the Beach-rangers, the Fishmen, the Hottentoos, and the like. These were the names the local natives came to be known as from the communication that started to flourish between the ‘white and coloured’ peoples. We will also look at the lives of the first evangelist missionaries who came to settle at the Cape and share in action their faith in God the Almighty!

    We now pick up the narrative and see the Saldanhars are becoming more and more problematic towards the Dutch settlers, as we read from the entries dated 9th and 14th January 1653,

    9.—Men returned with 1 cow, 2 calves and 3 sheep. Report departure of Saldanhars towards the east to the Bay de Sambras, whither they go every year, and thence crossing over the country to the west, as Herry says, proceed to Saldanha Bay, whence they come hither. Obtained the cattle from the Saldanhar Captain, stationed about 7 or 8 miles away eastward, nearly on the beach, having with him about 80 men and 5 or 600 beautiful head of cattle and 2,000 sheep—the finest they had ever seen. Would not part with any—had to suffer much insult from them and had nearly come to blows. Obeyed orders, however, and did them no harm—bore as much as they could, but had sufficient opportunity to drive off all their cattle, as the corporal, being hard pressed by the natives, fired a small pistol over their heads to get rid of them, when all ran away, leaving their cattle behind. They were called back and told that we would not do them any harm but wished to trade with copper and tobacco—and if they did not like it, they might go whither they wished—parted good friends and gave them some tobacco. Herry stated that Saldanhars will not return before next season, but that there were other natives who might come when seeing the copper of the Saldanhars. For when the latter, named Queena, were a good distance off, after having journeyed from one good pasture to another, the Fishmen called Soaqua would arrive with a few cattle. Told us to be careful of them, as they will come nominally to sell cattle but at the same time will endeavour to do us as much harm as possible, stealing what they can, as they subsist by stealing. What they have has been stolen from the Saldanhars, who when they catch them kill them without mercy and throw them to the dogs. Fires seen towards the East. Glad to have obtained so much cattle from the Saldanhars. People well supplied with meat—still on hand 350 sheep and 130 cows, among the latter 25 milch cows, 1 bull and many fine young oxen and heifers for breeding stock and refreshments for the ships. Hope to obtain some from the Fishmen also. The half of our copper supply still left. Tobacco running short—require for the future at least 1,000 lbs. weight, to spend it more liberally, as the natives are mighty fond of it. Two sheep destroyed by wild beasts during the night—the spoor evidently that of a lion. Four carpenters and others in bed with dysentery seemingly in consequence of eating some of the wild figs growing here abundantly and eaten by the natives. It is miserable that the common people are so indifferent about their health and know of no moderation before they are with their noses in their beds.

    14.—Bought a cow and calf for copper and tobacco, the chief saying that they intended coming to live near us again; treated them well with wine and tobacco to gain their favour, promising to give more copper for their cattle. Herry told us that the Saldanhars made armlets and chains of the copper which they exchange for cattle with tribes more inland, annually returning to the English and Dutch to barter for another supply. …

    The Dutch placed their trust in God

    From the journal entries it is evident that the Dutchmen were Christians who placed their trust in God Almighty – not just any ‘God’, but the One and Only True God YEHOVAH (YHVH)! The South Africa of today would be wise to take counsel from our missionary forefathers who brought the Gospel of God’s Son the Lord Jesus Christ to our shores and that its citizens would live by the following verses,

    5  Trust in the LORD with all thine heart; and lean not unto thine own understanding. 
    6  In all thy ways acknowledge him, and he shall direct thy paths. 
    7  Be not wise in thine own eyes: fear the LORD, and depart from evil. ~ Proverbs 3:5-7

    The following journal entries, which have been highlighted in bold text, bear testimony of their Christian faith,

    January, 1653

    24.—Heavy South-Easter.
    25.—Wheelbarrows again manageable. Caught, thank God! to night 1,700 harders.
    26.—Bay full of fish. Seins useless, being so old and broken; busy repairing them. It appears as if the Almighty will again come to our aid with fish, which is better for the men in their heavy work than penguins or seals.

    29.—In the evening God Almighty again gave us a fine haul of fish, 14 or 1,500 fine harders. Highly required, as the Dutch food is nearly exhausted and bread can hardly last longer than three or four weeks. Our hopes rest on the return fleet for rice, &c.
    30 and 31.—Wind and weather as above.

    February, 1653

    9. (Sunday).—Went about two miles behind Table Mountain. Found it so full of locusts that earth and sky, as if snow flakes were flying, were hardly distinguishable. If these insects were to come about the fort and into the gardens it is to be feared that all fruit will be destroyed, as we observe from the grass, which has been eaten away level with the ground. Will hope, however, that the Lord will preserve us from this affliction.

    12.—The barber (surgeon) reported eight cases of dropsy, dysentery, fever and pain in the joints, the sufferers altogether incapable of doing any work; besides there are many others ailing much though still walking about, becoming gradually almost helpless, so that the works are greatly retarded. It would be unfortunate if an enemy arrived now. They might starve us out, as excepting the cattle in the fort, which must feed outside, we are badly provisioned, being already on short allowance for 14 days. Hope for speedy aid from India. The chief carpenter, chief barber (who is alone) and gardener have fallen ill, whilst the provisional sergeant likewise had the fever last night. Bought to-day, thank God! a cow and 15 sheep from Saldanhars squatting some five miles away.

    Daily trials

    Jan van Riebeeck ships Despite the many trials and tribulations that the Dutch were experiencing almost on a daily basis with theft of bartered stock cattle and sheep, vegetables either being destroyed by the weather or stolen, murders of white colonials by the natives, deaths by dropsy, dysentery, scurvy and other illnesses, the stealing of carpentry tools and equipment, dealing with deserters of the Company, the running out of food provisions, etc., the Hollanders of the Christian faith held to the ways of trusting in God for His will and purposes. As a result, much more testimonies can be read from the following journal entries, 

    27 and 28.—Lost an ox. Very likely stolen by the Hottentoos, as for some time a few natives have been seen skulking near the cattle, who stole a sheep to-day but were deprived of it by our people. Some pocket pistols required for the herds for defence against the cattle thieves, as they are very much afraid of firearms.
    N.B.—As usual the wind and weather are carefully noted.

    March, 1653

    March 1.—Carrots stolen from the garden. Reported by Jan van Leyen alias Verdonek of Flanders, lately deserter but now of good conduct, that Pieter Martensz; Koe and Roelof Hendricksz: shepherd, with Jan Blanx, Willem Huytjens and Gerrit Dirksz; had agreed to desert to-night or to-morrow with one of the sloops and some sheep, and that he, Jan van Leyen, had been requested to join—likewise to seize the galiot and depart with it. Jan Blanx, Willem Huytjens and Gerrit Dirksz: the principals, were immediately coaxed on board of the galiot and confined in it. Intended to do the same with Pieter Martensz: and Roeloff Hendricksz: who were herding the cattle and sheep, but they suspected danger and ran away. Counted the sheep at night, six were missing, which they had no doubt bound somewhere in the bushes for the purpose intended. Searchers returned unsuccessful. In the evening some Hottentoos report that they had seen five sheep behind Table Mountain, which were found by our people before dark, for which we thank the Almighty, as to-day the last rations of bread were distributed.

    25.—Death of a soldier named Jan Dale.
    26.—Arrival at midnight of the yacht de Haes with skipper Joris Janz: Somer, bringing later intelligence regarding the war. Had left the Texel on the 28th September last year, and touched at Sierra Leone, where it had left the ship West Vrieslandt, which would follow in 8 or 10 days. The latter had had mutiny on board. The chief mate and four others, who were the ringleaders, had been executed, as will appear from the record addressed to the Governor-General and Council of India and forwarded by the yacht. Heaven grant that the vessel may arrive safely, as 89 of the crew have already died. Council convened by Demmer. Resolved to refresh the yacht, and having unshipped its Cape cargo to send it on at once to Batavia—taking out of it for the fort 3 casks of meat, 2 casks of pork, 1 cask of butter, half a firkin of vinegar, 6½ aums of oil, 1 cask of Spanish wine, 2,000 lbs. bread and half a box of candles. The Commander was also ordered briefly to report to India on Cape matters and not unnecessarily to detain the yacht.

    April, 1653

    18.—Arrival of the Muyden in the evening a little beyond the roads, under skipper Evert Teunis Harnay, having left the Texel the 26th December. Crew fairly well, only six or seven deaths. Received letters from Amsterdam about the war, and that the Diamant and Lastdrager had struck on the banks before the land of Schouwe and become so leaky that they could not undertake the voyage. May the Almighty recompense the Company. Amen.

    20. (Sunday)—… Bartered 12 cows from another nation dwelling more inland, who had seen the copper of the Saldanhars and heard that there were Dutchmen here who had more; had therefore come to get some. They stated that there were others still further inland who would also come. This being so, abundance of cattle may be expected, and our supply of copper and tobacco run out. Sometimes a tusk is obtained for a small piece of tobacco and wire, hence we ought to be well supplied in order not to sit still, but to be able to treat the folks sometimes with a stomach full of rice, barley or peas, and wine or arrack. A little liberality in these things will attract them.
    21.—Said natives returned with 16 fine cows. Copper seems to be used by them. The cattle is very welcome to provide these latest ships abundantly, for which the Lord be praised.

    27.—Arrival of other strange natives from the interior. Bought 14 cows for copper, tobacco and pipes.

    May, 1653

    5.—Gillis Frederick Walvis, butler, and Symon Huybrechse, cadet, fight with knives. Are sentenced to receive some lashes, Walvis also to forfeit two and Symon one month’s wages and pay expenses.
    6.—Departure of the ships—the Almighty grant them a safe voyage home. Amen.

    A new people encountered

    Further from the ink quill of Commander Van Riebeeck, we read that there were “new people” who arrived from the interior. They do appear to be other people groups not encountered previously by the Dutch settlers, most likely still Khoikhoi hunter gatherers. They too were treated in a friendly manner and the “new people” were willing to barter, reciprocating by also showing a friendly disposition toward these white folk,

    7.—… Bartered five cows from a new people.
    8.—Fine weather.
    9.—Some new people arrive from the interior with 14 fine cows, which we bought, treating them when they left with a few glasses of arrack, which seems to draw them.

    25. (Sunday).—Fine weather.
    26.—Fine weather. Hon. Riebeeck with some Hottentoos proceed to the forest behind Table Mountain, where the carpenters are busy cutting timber for the fire-proof magazine, to encourage said natives to bring the beams to the fort: for which purpose they were beforehand well supplied with food and drink and tobacco, so that they managed to carry (six of them) a fair sized beam to the fortress, whilst two other beams were brought on with a cart by the men. To encourage the natives they were again well fed, receiving also a glass of arrack and a span of tobacco. In the meanwhile appliances required for dragging the wagon, are to be prepared in the best manner possible in the forest.
    27.—Eight men of the galiot are cutting firewood for the lime kilns, and the rest of the men are hard at work on the fortress to get it finished. Could not get the Hottentoos to do more work; they say they had
    been tired too much yesterday.
    28.—Made the attempt with oxen. Reported that these animals had pulled well, and before dark carried eleven beams from the forest into the open.
    29.—For a dish of beans and a glass of arrack we obtained five Hottentoos, but there was no work to be had out of them. More satisfactory to labour with our own people.
    30.—The men brought in three fine beams on the wagon, drawn by three oxen.

    A hardworking people

    It is an interesting statement that is recorded on the 29th May, 1653, recorded above where it reads, “… we obtained five Hottentoos, but there was no work to be had out of them. More satisfactory to labour with our own people.” No Hottentoo was forced to labour or made a slave, but they were found to be lazy and non cooperating in this instance. So the Dutch resorted to a more satisfactory labour of their own people. They were, and still are, an industrious hardworking nation!

    A Church Service, a murder, and theft of cattle by Herry

    Dating back to October, 1653 one can see that the real theft of anyone’s possessions started with the Hottentoos and more specifically by a local named Herry, a native taken into the employ by the Dutch East Indies Company as an interpreter. The communist rhetoric of the Marxist-ANC and Socialist-EFF political parties in present-day South Africa, 2019, that ‘white South Africans’ started everything by “stealing land” has no historical foundation as these unlearned politicians who whine repeatedly as a stuck-gramophone-vinyl are doing what they do best, spreading lies and indoctrinating the masses of a largely illiterate South Africa. Do they not understand the old saying: “Empty vessels make the most noise!” The true facts are that there is no written record, no autograph manuscript and certainly no true archived document that proves “the land was stolen” dating back to the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries, as it is based on hear-say by inept people trying to buy-votes with devilish lies! If any thing, the stealing by the native Saldanhars, Beach-rangers, and Fishmen, collectively known as the Hottentoos, started the stealing and fraudulent processes of South African politicking which is evident today. Friends, Herry was the betraying catalyst all those years ago bringing about this false political rhetoric of “stealing!” Herry was the original deceiving thief! Before the gainsayers come back with a “land stealing” issue, God’s Word tells us,

    24  God that made the world and all things therein, seeing that he is Lord of heaven and earth, dwelleth not in temples made with hands;
    25  Neither is worshipped with men’s hands, as though he needed any thing, seeing he giveth to all life, and breath, and all things;
    26  And hath made of one blood all nations of men for to dwell on all the face of the earth, and hath determined the times before appointed, and the bounds of their habitation; ~ Acts 7:24-26 

    It is God Who determines when and where people live setting the boundaries of their habitation (living), and so the lame racist comments directed at white Africans to “Go back to Europe” is a senseless no-brainer by foolish uneducated people, as the white Africans’ births were predetermined by God and nothing can change that!

    Van Riebeeck’s son a born African

    Abraham van Riebeeck In the next entry you will read of the birth of Johan and Maria van Riebeeck’s son, christened Abraham van Riebeeck, born on 18th October, 1653 at the Fort de Goede Hoop, Kaapkolonie (Cape Colony; present day Cape Town), who in the year 1709, when 56 years old, rose to the high position of Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie (VOC)), following in the footsteps of his father Johan. In retrospect Abraham van Riebeeck was the first white African to head the VOC!

    We continue now reading the historical account from the Journal of the Commander of the Cape Johan van Riebeeck,

    Pursuing Herry the cattle thief

    October, 1653

    17 and 18.—Mrs. Van Riebeeck gives birth to a son, the second born in the Fort. Bartered eight sheep from the Saldanhars, who were treated with arrack and tobacco.
    19. (Sunday).—After service we heard that the interpreter Herry had, during service, absconded with house and family. Do not know what it means. Had shown no signs of his intentions before church. Had only said yesterday that he intended visiting the Saldanhars, as he had done last year. At dinner we were told that all the cattle were also gone, and that the herd who was in charge of them, with the boatman, Hendrick Wilders, had been murdered near the Lion’s Rump, whilst the said Wilders was away to fetch their food. The cattle had been driven away, which an hour previously had been seen by the sentry in good pasturage, where they were generally left during dinner time in charge of the boy. Sent a mounted party in search behind the Lion Mountain, and two corporals with 15 or 16 soldiers over the kloof to meet beyond. After prayers at night the sergeant returned stating that the cattle had been driven behind Table Mountain along shore over rocks and stones, and that the corporals and the men were still in persuit, but could not proceed with the horses. Having been informed that the Hottentoos had gone with our cattle (42 in number) to the Hout Bay, we sent four men to the forest to inform the six men there of the theft and take them along with them, in order to circumvent the thieves. At night it commenced to rain and blow heavily, so that the men on the road will have a bad time of it.
    20.—Cold, bleak weather. A corporal and five men return via the Kloof, sent by their comrade Jan van Harwarden, who would with 12 men follow the thieves as far as the Hout Bay, but requested to be provided with food, which was sent at once with ten armed men, so that if they meet there will be 33 quite capable of coping with 2 or 300 Hottentoos. Return of Jan van Harwarden at night, with all the men, stating that the thieves had succeeded in driving the cattle beyond the point of Hout Bay towards Cape False. Having no provisions they were obliged to return, not having eaten since yesterday afternoon, and being dead tired and weak. Had missed the men sent with the provisions, otherwise they would have proceeded. In short we have lost the pantaloons—being unbreeched—most unexpectedly, and this by means of the Beach-rangers or Watermen, who have always
    been protected and kindly treated by us, receiving for their clothing all the skins of the cattle, &c. Besides we have been cruelly deceived in our interpreter Herry, whom we had always maintained as the chief of the lot, who had always dined at our table as a friend of the house and been dressed in Dutch clothes; besides also that from every fresh arrival he was provided with bags of bread, rice, wine, &c., by way of remunerating him for his services as interpreter. But this difficulty will be overcome if the Saldanhars are not frightened away by this theft of the beach-rangers from coming to us, thinking that we might revenge ourselves on them. Do not hope so. The milch cows are to be regretted, especially as we had much milk, butter and cheese, as in the Fatherland—all gone at once. Likewise the use of the draught oxen for fetching wood, stones, &c., to say nothing of the manure. With God in the van however, we trust to get other cattle from the Saldanhars, from whom the day before yesterday we obtained eight sheep, and who after being kindly treated left, promising to bring cattle very soon—we having at present only 60 sheep, one cow one ox, and four young calves. The rest were stolen whilst we were listening to the sermon.
    21.—Council decided, notwithstanding the theft, and though the men were very bitter in consequence, that no harm should be done to the natives, even if the thieves, yea Herry himself, were encountered, not only to show that we only wish to be on friendly terms, but also desire to forgive and forget, in order to remove all fear from the Saldanhars and draw them into close intercourse with, us, as the season for trading is now near at hand. Consequently a placcaat was issued that the men should not be carried away by anger to take vengeance on the natives, but to avoid it as much as possible. The men were properly distributed for duty, that in cases of emergency every one should know his station and work. The guards were likewise doubled. Discovered from this theft that these natives are not to be trusted and that prudence is necessary. Died from cold during the night our only ox, one calf and a sheep, having had no shelter. Much cattle dying from want of shelter and
    by wild animals.
    22.—Sent men to the forest to prepare the wood for the gate and other works—wagon to be drawn by the two horses obtained from Batavia. Two sheep died—seemed to be poisoned. Not a day or night passes without sheep dying.
    23.—Sent a corporal and two men, with hidden arms for defence, to meet two natives seen at a distance and if possible attract them with tobacco and good treatment, so that not only they, but the Saldanhars might be tempted to trade with us again, notwithstanding the murder committed and the theft of the cattle, and to make them feel that we wish to do them no harm, but to remain as friendly as ever, fully convinced that it was only a number of thieves and Beach-rangers who had done the mischief. For the rest they were to act in the best interests of the Company.
    Corporal returns in the afternoon and reports that he could not find the natives, though they had pretended to collect flowers and herbs. Wagon returns at night with a beam and two corbels. Had met seven natives armed with assegais, but no communication had been held with them. Three musketeers hastily arrive, reporting that five or six Saldanhars had visited them in the forest, and among them a captain from whom last year we had obtained much cattle, and who had once brought back to us a lost ox, and who told them that Herry was squatting with our stolen cattle at the Bay Falso and had requested the Saldanhars to live with them; but aware that he had stolen the cattle, they would have nothing to do with him, but would show us where he was, that we might regain our own with some men and fire-arms. Recognizing the captain, and knowing that his people possessed thousands of cattle and sheep and would think little of such a small number (as was stolen), also being aware that they had no great affection for Herry and his confreres, and would prefer to trade without, rather than with him, and that this captain, leaving his arms behind, had kindly come to tell us where Herry was, offering his services as guide, and for which purpose our men would expect him at the entrance of the forest this night, we decided by special resolution to send this evening, well armed and provisioned for five or six days, the Corporal Jan van Harwarden, a man of good discipline and energy, with 16 of the nimblest soldiers, who had volunteered to sleep in the forest this night, and before daylight to-morrow to start thence with the Saldanhars.
    24.—Fine weather for the picquet. Planted water-melon and cucumber seeds in the new garden. The fine herbs sown this and last month destroyed by worms in the ground, even young cabbages, carrots, turnips, radishes, &c. Time will show whether this is an annual nuisance.
    25.—After the closing of the gate three of our men returned with one cow, reporting that already yesterday they had observed the cattle and the location of Herry, consisting of four huts, near the point of Cape Falso, but as they had look-outs everywhere, they had left before our people had arrived, leaving their huts and some useless household utensils behind. Had followed them the whole day, and were still pursuing them, determined to come up with them. The cow having been left behind because she was tired, the corporal had sent her home with the request that they might have more provisions.
    26. (Sunday).— Sent the food, and orders that as the Saldanhars were afraid of joining us in the pursuit of Herry, not to follow the cattle further, and not having been successful, to return to the fort and give up the pursuit, as it would be impossible to provide them continually with food. Arrival of another cow from behind Lion Mountain—of its own accord.
    27.—Jan van Harwarden returns and reports that he had missed the five men sent yesterday with food. Had followed Herry
    persistently and for a long time, but could not catch him as he continually crossed the downs of Bay Falso, which were high, and where there was not always water, the men consequently suffering severe thirst and fatigue. Had been so near them once that one of Herry’s people was within range. Tried to catch him alive to make a guide of him, but before we could lay hold of him he had made his escape through some swampy ground and bushes. Herry kept to the downs, and avoided the flats and the beach, and also the places which the Saldanhars ordinarily visit, a proof that he is as afraid of them as of us. Will find this out for certain when the Saldanhars arrive, so as to persuade them by some presents to deliver to us Herry and his people or join us in following them up, &c.
    28.—Return of the provision bearers. Had not met the others. Been on the spoor, but had not been able to come up with Herry or any of his people.

    November, 1653

    4.—The men returning with beams brought an old Hottentoo between them whom they had caught. He was at once set at liberty, and being a Saldanhar, we filled his stomach and knapsack with bread and tobacco, and also gave him some wine, so his fears departed, and he remained at the fort of his own accord. Showed him tobacco and copper that he might tell his people that we wished  to buy cattle as last year. Told us they were coming, and that Herry had proceeded far inland. Could not understand him well, as he  knew not a word of Dutch or English. What we understood from  him was by means of Hottentoo words, whose meanings we had learnt.
    5.—Again treated the Hottentoo well, to show that we meant the natives no harm in consequence of Herry’s theft. They seem  to be afraid, and therefore do not come to the fort. Men ordered to treat all without exception kindly, that they might come without reluctance with their goods. Let the Hottentoo go at noon,  well provided with bread, tobacco, and arrack. Hope this treatment will draw the others.

    Van Riebeeck’s niece gets married

    Here we look into the manner in which a marriage of 17th Century life at the Cape, within the Church, was preceded by “banns”. The South African Pocket Oxford Dictionary 3rd Edition renders this word,

    banns pl. n. a public announcement of an intended marriage read out in a parish church.

    From other definitions “banns” is also noted as “the proclamation, generally made in church on three successive Sundays, of an intended marriage.” And the Oxford Living Dictionaries .com definition reads, “A notice read out on three successive Sundays in a parish church, announcing an intended marriage and giving the opportunity for objections.” You will note that the “banns” referred hereunder was made on the 9th, 16th and on the 23rd the “young couple solemnly married”, a far cry from marriages of the 21st Century!

    7.—Heavy, dry South-Easter, as last year.
    8.—The same—threatening destruction to everything. Jacob Reynierz: allowed to marry Elizabeth van Opdorp, niece and ward of Van Riebeeck, the first notice to be given in church to-morrow. The ceremony to be performed by the bookkeeper Verburgh, as by Resolution specially taken.
    9. (Sunday).—First publication of the banns.

    16. (Sunday).—Cut the first cauliflower, as fine and delicate as at home. Second banns published.

    18.—Wet weather, but seasonable for the gardens. Drought and heat have been very injurious to the fine seeds. Turnips and cabbage and carrots much destroyed by worms, of which the gardens are full. Will however, have abundance for the return fleet and all who arrive from home, except cattle and sheep, as we fear that the Saldanhars will be afraid of coming to the fort when informed of Herry’s crimes, thinking that we may take vengeance on them. May God make them understand otherwise, that on arrival they may experience the same friendly treatment of last year.

    23. (Sunday).—Fine, warm, sunshine. The young couple solemnly married before the Council and the public in the Council Chamber. There being no Minister the ceremony was performed by the Secretary.

    Love forgives and conquers all

    We find that the Dutch carried out hard discipline against their own for as little as insubordination being committed within their ranks, whilst a murder of a Dutch sentry and the theft of cattle and sheep by Herry, a Hottentoo, are dismissed and friendly communication and behaviour by the Dutch towards the natives are encouraged in order to keep a friendly and harmonious relationship going between the parties as can be read in other entries here above. This is based on Christian principles, viz, “Recompense to no man evil for evil. Provide things honest in the sight of all men. If it be possible, as much as lieth in you, live peaceably with all men.” (Romans 12:17,18). We can read of the events as follows,

    December, 1653

    3.—The butler and under barber of the galiot, in consequence of having uttered defamatory expressions about the skipper and mate, are sentenced to receive fifty lashes; and the under barber the cause of other troubles, is further sentenced to be suspended from office for six months and compelled to beg pardon of the officers of justice and the persons injured by him, and so make restitution for having wounded their honour, as is more fully expressed in the sentence.
    4.—Sentence carried into execution.

    This is once again reiterated in an entry that appears on 7th December, 1653,

    7. (Sunday).— … They said that what Herry had done was by no means pleasant to them, and that the Hottentoo called by us Lubbert, the comrade of Herry, had murdered the boy, and that they would have nothing to do with them or any of the watermen, and would visit us tomorrow with cattle and sheep as last year, upon which our people, in the best way they could do, expressed our kind intentions and bartered four or five ostrich egg-shells. Trust that the Lord God will give his blessing on the trade. Amen.

    A week later we read in the journal how the Hottentoos who were present with Herry are fearing for their lives whether the Dutch will revenge the murder and theft, however peaceable negotiations once again take place,

    14. (Sunday), 15, 16, and 17.— … Accordingly we sent the Domine—whom they knew well since last year—with tobacco, copper, pipes and bread, and besides Muller another corporal, both secretly armed with pistols, but as soon as the natives saw them approaching they took to their heels to about half-a-mile beyond the view of the fort, where they awaited our people, seeing they had no muskets. Found them to be people of the captain, who seemed last year to be in alliance with Herry. Among them were two who were present when Herry stole the cattle. Often asked mu’ men ‘whether they had fire-arms with them, evidently being very frightened and shaking and trembling as they sat down with them. Could not be persuaded to come to the fort, but would be at the same spot to-morrow with two cows. Gave each a piece of wire, tobacco, pipes and bread, also some for their captain ; and as one of them had had a hand in the theft, or at any rate was present when it was committed, the present to the captain was entrusted to him to show that he was not suspected, and to remove their fears. They parted consequently in friendship, with the agreement to meet to-morrow, sending as a token of regard a full ostrich egg to the Commander. They also wished to make it appear that they abhorred Herry and his evil deeds. God best knows what to make of it, but it is certain that they fear that we will revenge ourselves on them. Must do our best by kind treatment to regain their confidence, which can only be done when again trading with them. The Domine is to go again to-morrow.

    It is evident from this journal entry that the Biblical principal of doing good to one’s enemies is in action as commanded by their Lord Jesus Christ,

    43  Ye have heard that it hath been said, Thou shalt love thy neighbour, and hate thine enemy.
    44  But I say unto you, Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you, and persecute you;
    45  That ye may be the children of your Father which is in heaven: for he maketh his sun to rise on the evil and on the good, and sendeth rain on the just and on the unjust.
    46  For if ye love them which love you, what reward have ye? do not even the publicans the same?
    47  And if ye salute your brethren only, what do ye more than others? do not even the publicans so?
    48  Be ye therefore perfect, even as your Father which is in heaven is perfect.
    ~ Matthew 5:43-48

    December, 1653, continues . . .

    18.—Found it necessary to send 10 musketeers with the 50 men carrying palisades from the forest 2½ miles distant from this, as the Saldanhars, however timid, are not to be trusted, and steal whatever they can get. Becoming afraid, however, in consequence of this arrangement, they remained away. Therefore to give them courage to approach and live on friendly terms with them, it is necessary to guard our property well, for if only two or three carry muskets not a hundred natives will attack them, but they cannot refrain from stealing when they see our men unarmed. That they are bloodthirsty has not yet been shown, as the murder of the boy was only committed to prevent the news of the theft from reaching the fort in time for pursuit. If they were cannibals they might often have killed our men, who cannot be prevented from going out into the fields to gather figs and other dainties. As the Hottentoos had agreed to meet our men to-day, we sent the Provost Marshal alone towards them with a pistol concealed in his coat, that the Saldanhars, believing him unarmed, might more fearlessly approach him, and if possible be persuaded to come to the fort, and in case of failure to tell them to wait for the others, who would bring the wares agreed upon.
    19. —The wood carriers report at night that the fires of the Saldanhars had been removed far inland, and they had seen no natives.
    20.—Riebeeck and Reyniersz: escorted by 20 men proceed to the forest to inspect, &c., and see whether it were possible to reach the Saldanhars. About 1
    ½ mile from the fort from the side of the mountain we saw half-a-mile from us various troops of natives, to whom we at once went, leaving the soldiers behind us within musket range, and taking three or four secretly armed with pistols with us, and also the drummer, who was sent in advance to tell them that the captain was there himself. Having given his message, and the natives finding that we had left the armed men behind, awaited—about 12 or 13 of them—our coming, but as we approached, and the soldiers imperceptibly almost did the same, they sometimes, some of them, got up and ran away as hard as they could through abject fear, and even after returning, repeating it 10 or 12 times, until we left four more behind and the three of us approached. Ten of them then kept their ground, though shaking with fear; the rest stood at a safe distance, seeing how matters would end. When we came up they recognized the Commander, shook hands with him, and, as a strange sign of good feeling and friendship, took him round the neck, the Commander not being backward in his gesticulations for the same purpose. At once the bags were opened, and they were treated well with bread, arrack, wine, tobacco and pipes. Made us understand that they were greatly dissatisfied with Herry’s doings, and had given him a good thrashing, &c. Seemed to be favourably disposed, and we at last succeeded in getting them with one cow to the fort, but they stopped more than 50 times on the road, afraid of proceeding, and begging us to bring the copper to them in the fields. We, on the other hand, encouraged them the best Avaywe could, assuring them of good treatment at the fort. At last they ventured, and we, taking them by the hand, and dancing, jumping and singing, entered the fortress with them, where we filled them well with tobacco, arrack and food, besides performing various tricks which pleased them well and caused a new alliance with them, to further which we bought a cow from them for double the amount generally paid.

    In closing this examination of events, you can see that there are many more entries of the same nature that you have read here that could be included, but writer is painstakingly reading through every entry to be able to record that which needs to be brought to the fore which is pertinent for the very subject at hand. Kindly note that any entry that has not been included here under the various parts making up this historical examination, they should be read by you at your own leisure to grasp the full record of the Journal in its entirety. Until the next posting,

    Soli Deo Gloria_____________________

    Footnotes:

    [1] Precis of the Archives of the Cape of Good Hope, December 1651 – December 1655, Riebeeck’s Journal – by H. C. V. Leibrandt, Keeper of the Archives. Part I. Cape Town : W. A. Richards & Sons, Government Printers, 1897. pp57-95

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