The Land Issue: South Africa 1652 – present: Part 4

Recapping

Flag of the Dutch East India Company svg Welcome to Part 4 of this examination into South African History. We request that you kindly read the preceding parts to gain a proper understanding and the correct context in which this particular part continues the documented course of events. The information has been gleaned from archived documents translated from the original autographs of the Journal of Johan van Riebeeck and others.

In Part 1 we looked at the meticulous planning by the Dutch in the years 1649-1651 prior to Johan van Riebeeck and the designated parties sailing from Texel in the Netherlands on their voyage to the Cape of Good Hope to establish a refreshment station as undertaken by the VOC (Dutch East Indies Company).

In Part 2 we undertook the voyage from Texel in the Netherlands on 14th December 1651 sailing on the flag ship of the fleet, the Drommedaris, to the landing at the Cape of Good Hope on 6th April 1652. We also looked extensively at the lifestyle of the Dutch settlers and their work ethic, their relationships with the local Khoikhoi and San natives and other people groups from these clans. We looked also at the relationship between the Dutch and a native interpreter named Herry. This took our learning adventure into the early days of January 1653.

In Part 3 our investigations continued from the 9th of January 1653 looking back into life at the Cape of Good Hope, the relationships being forged between the local natives and the colonists, the Dutch Christian lifestyle, the assembly service and the gospel, daily trials and tribulations experienced by the Dutch, the birth of Johan and Maria van Riebeeck’s son, christened Abraham van Riebeeck, who was born on 18th October, 1653 at the Fort de Goede Hoop, Kaapkolonie (Cape Colony; present day Cape Town), making Abraham a born white African and therefore ‘a son of Africa.’ We read about a Christian marriage on African soil, native theft and the murder of a Dutch cattle herdsman  and the subsequent forgiveness to continue with friendly communications and dealings between black and white peoples. This part would end in December 1653.

Christian attitudes toward ‘slaves’

The Dutch East India Company (VOC) We now pick up the narrative once again looking at various documents that have been included in the Journal writings of Johan van Riebeeck[1] and the VOC, that particularly show the friendly dealings of the Dutch conveying their Christian ethos towards their fellow man. Whilst this particular portion of the various parts will deal with the Hollanders’ stance on ‘slaves’ and ‘slavery’, we will be able to see that slaves were initially never intended to be the local Khoikhoi and San natives encountered at the Cape of Good Hope. The  recordings encountered make reference and point to labour being brought from afar, from people groups who were known to be of service and who were ‘experienced’ in certain fields, i.e. agriculture, masonry, building, etc. It should also be noted that from a Christian perspective and from what the Bible teaches concerning slaves and slavery the teachings however do not fit with the evil and wicked practice of sinful white and black men involved in the predominately Atlantic slave trade, which also incorporated the Indian Ocean, North and Central African and Mediterranean slave trade routes that existed from the 16th to the 20th centuries.

the%20atlantic%20slave%20trade

We are reminded in scripture,

9  The heart is deceitful above all things, and desperately wicked: who can know it? 
10  I the LORD search the heart, I try the reins, even to give every man according to his ways, and according to the fruit of his doings. ~ Jeremiah 17:9,10

Whilst this particular posting will deal with ‘slaves’ and slavery’, it however will not be dealt with exhaustively (possibly a blog for another day), but will reveal the connection due to the political divide saying black slavery was connected with whites stealing land! This will be shown to be untrue in many respects and political disinformation due to the many tribal wars that also took place during the Mfecane (Difaqane) – “a series of wars fought as African societies in southern Africa expanded in size and competed for power, land and other resources from about the 1790s to the 1850s.”[3] (A separate blog posting dealing with this particular era of South Africa’s diverse history will be dealt with at a future time – GSC).

A painting of the Dutch landing at the Cape of Good Hope Commencing, we pick up from certain journal entries how the Dutch Christians had planned their way forward in dealing with the native Khoikhoi and San people and any other ‘slaves’ to be brought to the Cape.

At page 100 of the Journal under the date 13th May 1652, we can read,

… In case you decided upon an Eastern course it would be advantageous also to visit some Madagascar harbours, where some profitable trade might be secured at least in slaves, and I would be glad to receive the advices and notes of the Hon. van der Stel, who I recollect visited the place from Mauritius in his time with a yacht, and made a good thing with slaves. …

Under a heading titled “No. 6.—Batavia—To the India Council”, we read at page 108,

… Would like to have some slaves for the dirtiest and heaviest work, to take the place of the Dutchmen in fetching stone, &c., which are to be obtained only at a distance, and with which we will be able to make whatever is necessary. Some slaves from Batavia would therefore be welcome, who know how to cut stone and dig up the soil. You should also send us some tile and brickmakers, as brickmaking will be harder work than fetching and preparing the stone. …

(Signed) J. v. Riebeeck.

Cape of Good Hope, 25th May, 1652.

From portions of the Edicts that follow one can read the initial undertaking of kind and protected treatment of the local natives and the consequences to be dished out to those persons found ill-treating them, as we can read from an extract at pages 125-126 of the Journal,

EDICTS (PLAKKATEN.)
ISSUED BY Commander Johan van Riebeeck and Council from the 9th April, 1652, to the 14th October, 1652.

April 9, 1652.—… And should anyone ill-treat, beat, or push a native—whether he be right or wrong—he shall in the presence of the latter receive lashes, that the natives may he made to understand that the deed has been against our will, and that we desire to associate with them in all kindness and friendliness, according to the orders and object of our Lords Principals. Therefore the various guards shall likewise be specially ordered also to keep an eye on this. And should they connive at any harm done to the natives, they shall (if convicted) receive the same punishment. Everyone is therefore earnestly admonished and ordered to show all friendliness and amiability to the natives, that in course of time they may be made accustomed to us by our friendly intercourse, and help to realize the object of the Masters. Everyone however, shall be on his guard and not venture among them so far or trust himself among them, that they may overpower and massacre, or carry him off. …

Thus done by the broad Council on the ship Drommedaris, this 9th April, 1652. (Signed) J. VAN RIEBEECK.

And at page 128 thereof we continue reading concerning the Christian ethos the Dutch held to, imploring all to not neglect their Christian practice, if in fact they were true Christians. We can also understand that in and amongst the Dutch Reformed Christians of the 17th century there would be some who were unbelievers for at no time can one say that there would always be a 100% believing people group. Just as 21st century South Africans profess that they are predominantly “all Christian,” when supposedly professing Christians are not Christian at all in the true sense of the word and by their practices! In the words of the Lord Jesus Christ, for it is written,

16  Ye shall know them by their fruits. Do men gather grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles?
17  Even so every good tree bringeth forth good fruit; but a corrupt tree bringeth forth evil fruit.
18  A good tree cannot bring forth evil fruit, neither can a corrupt tree bring forth good fruit.
19  Every tree that bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down, and cast into the fire. 
20  Wherefore by their fruits ye shall know them.
~ Matthew 7:16-20

For if all were true Christians they would follow the teachings of the Lord Jesus Christ and not have mixed in with their faith and belief the Roman papal system, ancestral traditions and customs of men, heresy and the like! In the Journal, exhorting to attendance of the Christian practice is made,

… And as many absent themselves from daily prayer, and the Sunday Christian exercises and exhortations—attending very little to their religion, which all true Christians, for the sake of their consciences, should principally, and before all other things cherish carefully, if the blessing of the Lord on this place is not to be withheld, and he does not wish to forfeit the grace of the Lord—everyone, whoever he may be, is warned henceforth to attend at the place appointed for the purpose; …

(Signed) J. van Riebeeck.

In the Fort Good Hope, 9th October, 1652.

Further, at page 140 from a letter “No. 25.—To Riebeeck. From Batavia.”, we read in part the instructions from the Batavian Republic of the intensions of the Dutch concerning “slaves and the local natives”. There appears to be a clear distinction between the “local native service” and “foreign slaves”, as we read as follows:

… We have not been able to persuade any Chinese to leave their country for such a distant land and with such uncertain prospects; neither can we at the moment send any slaves, because we require them ourselves. We trust that the natives have come nearer and settled under the fortress, and that they will be sufficiently inclined for service to do all kinds of work instead of slaves, and where if possible they should be kept by means of little presents. …

(Signed by the India Council) Carel Reiniersz, Joan Maetsuyker, Carel Hartzinck, Joan Cunceus, Corn: Caesar, D. J. Steur.

In the Castle of Batavia, 24th December, 1652.

The main slave routes in medieval Africa [Photo: Wikipedia] God’s Word and slavery

From what we have seen recorded above concerning how the Dutch Christians were to deal with the local natives concerning labour and prospective slaves to be had, we will now examine what GOD’s Word says concerning slavery and the slave.

To place the teachings in GOD’s Holy Word into its proper context, one must realise that if one was without a job, one could sell oneself into servitude in order to obtain a proper living where the servant slave would be cared for with clothing, food, accommodation and in the context and time frame that we refer to health care, and also be paid a sum of money for their services. This practice would not be any different to a modern-day ‘live-in maid’ or a ‘live-in garden boy’ or on a bigger comparison to farm labourers who ‘sell themselves’ into labour! Sinful and wicked men brought about the enslaving of people and selling them off to the highest bidders at slave markets. It was also wicked sinful men that brought about the beatings and inhumane treatment of their ‘slave property.’ Unfortunately and with great righteous anger this evil and wicked practice still continues even today in the 21st century, just under a different guise: Human trafficking!

One should also bear in mind the context of the word slave which historically has taken on a more wicked, inhumane and sinister meaning deviating from the Biblical intention and practice of servitude. It is also clear from reading GOD’s Word one can see that GOD intended that slaves would be looked after and cared for.

To quantify and qualify these afore-stated facts we go to GOD’s Holy Word as contained in the 1611 Authorised Version in English, commonly known as the King James Version Bible, and we see that the word “slave” appears only once in Jeremiah 2:14 and the word “slaves” also only once in Revelation 18:13. One would expect that during the 17th century the word “slave” would be brandied around more often as it was common practice at that time. However, godly men of GOD who translated the Bible from the original autographs of the Textus Receptus (the Received Text) into the English language were moved of GOD to record the correct translated words which we record here for ease of reference, as contained in the Strong’s Complete Word Study Concordance[2], these being in their many grammatical forms, viz:

  • slave (1)
  • slaves (1)
  • servant (493)
  • servant’s (9)
  • servants (476)
  • servants’ (4)
  • bondmaid (2)
  • bondmaids (2)
  • bondman (6)
  • bondmen (17)
  • bondservant (1)
  • bondwoman (8)
  • bondwomen (3)
  • maid (36)
  • maid’s (1)
  • maids (9)
  • maidservant (16)
  • maidservant’s (1)
  • maidservants (9)
  • maidservants’ (1)
  • manservant (12)
  • manservant’s (1)
  • manservants (1)
  • menservants (10)
  • womenservants (3)

It is suggested that as a Bible scholar (or a layman just passing by), that you consult each of the references from the Strong’s Concordance and place each word in its proper context reading from Scripture. However, to get to the main point, the vast majority of the words used in context are found to be the word servant(-s), which explanation for ease of reference is quoted here in its entirety from page 1930[2]:

H5650 עבד , ‘ebed, eh’-bed; from 5647; a servant:– X bondage, bondman, [bond-] servant, (man-) servant.

A masculine noun meaning a servant, a slave. Although the most basic concept of this term is that of a slave, slavery in the Bible was not the same as the slavery of modern times. The period of slavery was limited to six years (Ex 21:2). Slaves had rights and protection under the Law (Ex 21:20). It was also possible for slaves to attain positions of power and honour (Gen 24:2; 41:12). In addition, the people under the king were called his servants (Gen 21:25); as well as his officers (1Sam 19:1); officials (2Kin 22:12); ambassadors (Num 22:18); vassal kings (2Sam 10:19); tributary nations (1Chr 18:2,6,13). This word is also a humble way of referring to one’s self when speaking with another of equal or superior rank (Gen 33:5). The term is also applied to those who worship God (Neh 1:10); and to those who minister or serve Him (Isa 49:5,6). The phrase, the servant of the Lord, is the most outstanding reference to the Messiah in the OT, and its teachings are concentrated at the end of Isaiah (Isa 42:1,19; 43:10; 49:3,5-7; 52:13; 53:11).

As stated above that the word ‘ebed comes from 5647, we also quote extensively from page 1930[2] the following:

H5647 עבד , ‘âbad, aw-bad’; a primitive root; to work (in any sense); by implication to serve, till, (causative) enslave, etc.:– X be, keep in bondage, be bondmen, bond-service, compel, do, dress, ear, execute, + husbandman, keep, labour (-ing man), bring to pass, (cause to, make to) serve (-ing, self), (be, become) servant (-s), do (use) service, till (-er), transgress [from margin], (set a) work, be wrought, worshipper.

A verb meaning to work, to serve. This labour may be focused on things, other people, or God. When it is used in reference to things, that item is usually expressed: to till the ground (Gen 2:5; 3:23; 4:2); to work in a garden (Gen 2:15); or to dress a vineyard (Dt 28:39). Similarly, this term is also applied to artisans and craftsmen, like workers in fine flax (Isa 19:9); the labourers of the city (Eze 48:19). When the focus of the labour is another person, that person is usually expressed: Jacob’s service to Laban (Gen 29:15); the Israelites’ service for the Egyptians (Ex 1:14); and a people’s service to the king (Jgs 9:28; 1Sam 11:1). When the focus of the labour is the Lord, it is a religious service to worship Him. Moreover, in these cases, the word does not have connotations of toilsome labour but instead of a joyful experience of liberation (Ex 3:12; 4:23; 7:16; Jos 24:15,18). Unfortunately, this worship service was often given to false gods (Dt 7:16; 2Kin 10:18,19,21-23).

The servant (slave) laws that were given to GOD’s people, the Hebrews, can be read hereunder from the Book of Exodus, for it is written,

Chapter 21

1  Now these are the judgments which thou shalt set before them. 
2  If thou buy an Hebrew servant, six years he shall serve: and in the seventh he shall go out free for nothing. 
3  If he came in by himself, he shall go out by himself: if he were married, then his wife shall go out with him. 
4  If his master have given him a wife, and she have born him sons or daughters; the wife and her children shall be her master’s, and he shall go out by himself. 
5  And if the servant shall plainly say, I love my master, my wife, and my children; I will not go out free: 
6  Then his master shall bring him unto the judges; he shall also bring him to the door, or unto the door post; and his master shall bore his ear through with an aul; and he shall serve him for ever. 
7  And if a man sell his daughter to be a maidservant, she shall not go out as the menservants do. 
8  If she please not her master, who hath betrothed her to himself, then shall he let her be redeemed: to sell her unto a strange nation he shall have no power, seeing he hath dealt deceitfully with her. 
9  And if he have betrothed her unto his son, he shall deal with her after the manner of daughters.
10  If he take him another wife; her food, her raiment, and her duty of marriage, shall he not diminish.
11  And if he do not these three unto her, then shall she go out free without money.
12  He that smiteth a man, so that he die, shall be surely put to death.
. . . 
16  And he that stealeth a man, and selleth him, or if he be found in his hand, he shall surely be put to death.
. . .  
20  And if a man smite his servant, or his maid, with a rod, and he die under his hand; he shall be surely punished. 
21  Notwithstanding, if he continue a day or two, he shall not be punished: for he is his money.
. . .  
26  And if a man smite the eye of his servant, or the eye of his maid, that it perish; he shall let him go free for his eye’s sake. 
27  And if he smite out his manservant’s tooth, or his maidservant’s tooth; he shall let him go free for his tooth’s sake.
. . .  
32  If the ox shall push a manservant or a maidservant; he shall give unto their master thirty shekels of silver, and the ox shall be stoned.

Whilst these Laws were given to the Hebrews, as Christians in the New Testament we are reminded in scripture that,

16  All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness: 
17  That the man of God may be perfect, throughly furnished unto all good works. ~ 2 Timothy 3:16,17

Therefore, the Dutch Christians were to use the Holy Scriptures of the Bible as their standard for dealing with their fellow man and neighbours. Even in today’s legal system a vast majority of the laws in place stems from the Holy Bible!

Slave traders and the “K-word”! 

At page 142 under a title “LETTERS AND DOCUMENTS DESPATCHED. No.—14.—Batavia—To the India Council by the “Muyden.”” we read an entry in the Journal dealing with provisions that can be used in the trade along the African coast where the Mozambique traders trade,

26th April, 1653.—… With the return fleet of next year we shall expect the same quantity of clothing. Supply at present inadequate. The same as regards provisions; also rice, which is more convenient than bread. Would also like to have one or two parcels red cloths, not too fine or too coarse, in case we are ordered from home to trade along the coast which the Mozambique traders frequent, and where for cheap articles much gold, tusks, ebony and fine Caffers for slaves are to be had, as you may gather from the accompanying extract of the present letter to the Masters.

(Signed) J. v. Riebeeck.

Arab slave traders and their captives along the Ruvuma River in Mozambique [Photo: Wikipedia]

Arab slave traders and their captives along the Ruvuma River in Mozambique [Photo: Wikipedia]

From this preceding transcript it is not clearly stated as to the race of these “Mozambique traders,” but seeing that they are mentioned as possible indigenous inhabitants of Mozambique it can be deduced that they were the local African inhabitants of that African region. Therefore, it is very interesting that a record has been made of these Mozambique traders dealing in “fine Caffers for slaves are to be had.” This information had been made known to/by Johan van Riebeeck from the “accompanying extract of the present letter to the Masters.” And judging from the above artist’s impression it appears that this was “black Arab slavers selling black slaves!”

It is at this point that we should look at the etymology of the South African reference to the “K-word”! The word is originally Kafir, also spelt Caffer or Kaffir! The two latter spellings are the British English spelling of the original Arabic word Kafir, where the search engine WikiIslam[4] gives the following definition, quote:

A kāfir (كافر ; plural كفّار kuffār) is a disbeliever, someone who rejects Allah and who does not believe in Muhammad as the final messenger of Allah.[1][2] Although Christians and Jews are called the People of the Book (أهل الكتاب ahl al-kitab), they qualify as disbelievers[3][4][5] according to the Qur’an. The word “kafir” can be offensive to non-Muslims, as it has roots meaning “concealer” and “ingrate” implying that non-Muslims are liars. It is also often used by Muslims as an extremely offensive curse word. Other terms which are used to refer to non-Muslims include “faasiq” (sinner, corrupt) and “munafiq” (hypocrite).

This word was used by many nations to describe people as ‘unbelievers’ or ‘non-believers’, a word that had no real racist connotations in times past. In the true sense of the Arabic word kafir, you would have black kafirs, white kafirs, brown kafirs, and any other unbelieving kafirs who did not embrace Islam. It is unfortunate that sinful men started using a word in a racial way to describe people groups. It is even more unfortunate that during the apartheid years in South Africa (1948-1994), which “apartheid” (“apartness” or “separation”) was instituted by the Reunited National Party (Herenigde Nasionale Party) whose first apartheid-era prime minister was Daniel François Malan (1948–1954), that the Arabic word kafir became the derogatory word “kaffer” used by Afrikaners, but not all,  as a very offensive swear word directed at black Africans in very demeaning ways. This disrespectful word also then became a vulgar word used by Afrikaans, English and even some Bantu tribes of South Africa, just as the word can also be used by Muslims as an extremely offensive curse word. This word was used to bring down the black African man “to put him in his place” – the HNP’s 1948 pro-Afrikaner political rhetoric with their neo-Nazi attitude. Where the Nazi’s under Adolph Hitler subjected the Jews to concentration camps during the Second World War (1939-1945) the Nationalist government in South Africa subjected the black Africans to townships in their segregation or separateness policies enforced as Apartheid!

A comparison between certain 'freedoms' of the U.S. Constitution and the 'teachings' in the Qur'an Also at the same WikiIslam webpage as mentioned above one can read “How to Become a Kafir”. Listed, one can read, “Call on anyone other than Allah (i.e. for intercession) (Qur’an 10:106), Dislike Allah (Qur’an 39:45)” and other references. But the one reference that should leap out at the reader should be “Judge by any other law aside from Islamic law (Qur’an 5:44)”. This infers that you become a kafir in terms of the Islamic faith because you judge by another law aside from Shari’ah Law (Islamic Law). That will then make the ‘infidel’ South African government and its citizens all kafirs which according to the Promotion of Prevention of Unfair Discrimination Act the entire Muslim faith is guilty of crimen injuria (Latin, short for crimen injuria datum, meaning “offence committed without lawful cause”).

Islamic slave traders

The following quoted extract also comes from the WikiIslam webpage at this Islamic law[5] link:

Slavery

Main Article: Slavery

Slave market in Khartoum, c. 1876 [Photo: Wikipedia] Slave market in Khartoum, c. 1876 [Photo: Wikipedia]

Under Islamic laws, slavery is explicitly permitted.[145] As Saudi Sheikh Saleh Al-Fawzan, a member of the Senior Council of Clerics had said in 2003, those who argue that slavery is abolished are "ignorant, not scholars. They are merely writers. Whoever says such things is an infidel."[146] Muhammad himself was a slaver. He not only owned many male[147][148] and female[149] slaves, but he also sold, captured, and had sex[150] with his slaves. Even his wives owned slaves. Apologists will claim that Muhammad provided a system that would eventually lead to the abolition of slavery, but this is not true and nowhere does Islamic scripture support such a statement. Yes, Muhammad regulated it and allowed for the manumission of a slave, but this is by no means an obligation. It is clear that Muhammad held no animosity towards slavery,[151] and at times even discouraged the freeing of slaves.[152] He even encouraged racism by exchanging two black slaves for one Arab.[153] As is clear, Muhammad’s actions perpetuated the existence of this reprehensible trade by institutionalising it within Islam, This sanction of slavery has helped the Muslim world create one of the largest trans-continental slave trades in history. The Eastern Islamic slave trade is the longest yet least discussed of the two major trades. Much like the Crusades and the Islamic Conquests which prompted them, you only hear of the one and not the other. Many people are not even aware that the Arab slave trade ever existed, even though it began around 650 AD (pre-dating the European slave trade by over a thousand years) However, It was only officially abolished (due largely to pressure from the West,[154] rather than their own conscience) in the 1960’s and the slave trade still exists in the Islamic East. As of July 2009,[155] there were over half a million slaves in Mauritania alone. In Pakistan, the labor minister of Punjab had said in early 2009 that there are "millions of forced laborers in ‘private prisons’ across the country",[156] and the town of Hajja, Yemen, in 2010 is home to another 300 slaves.[157] This (just like the history of Jihad) is an ongoing atrocity that many want to erase from our history books and have largely succeeded in doing so. Unlike the Europeans who were primarily interested in male slaves for use as agricultural workers, the

Inspecting New Arrivals by Giulio Rosati 2Inspecting New Arrivals by Giulio Rosati 2 [Photo: WikiIslam]

Islamic raiders interests (like Muhammad’s before them) lay in female slaves to use for sexual exploitation as concubines, in harems. Also, putting aside the 1.25 million white Europeans Christians who were captured and sold into the Muslim slave trade between the 16th and 19th century,[158] the number of innocent Africans who were taken (or died in the process of being taken) as slaves over the last fourteen centuries of Islamic slavery is estimated to be higher than 140 million.[159] This figure dwarfs the numbers that were taken at the hands of Europeans. And unlike in the West, male slaves (blacks in particular) were commonly castrated,[160] hence the lack of surviving descendants of black slaves in the Middle-East.

White Cargo Pic [Photo: Wikipedia] We also know that there was not only blacks captured and sold off as slaves but whites too were captured and sold into slavery. But not much is said about the “white cargo trade” for it does not assist with the black political rhetoric! Also, it is always argued that the white people were the only slave traders, and yes they were as owners of ships and as “masters”, however, it was black men and Arabs that were rounding up the black slaves in Africa and the Middle East! Blacks were selling blacks for greedy prosperity! Nothing has changed, nowadays they just use politics to sell out the black man; and the white man? well, he is their scapegoat!

From the Holy Bible we see the first dealings in the selling of a young Hebrew named Joseph into slavery by his very own brothers. And Joseph found himself being sold to the Ishmeelites, the descendants of Ishmael, the half brother of his grandfather Isaac born to Abraham. Ishmael was the son born of his mother Hagar the Egyptian, the maid of Abraham’s wife Sarah (see Genesis 16, at the time Abraham was Abram and Sarah was Sarai). Ishmael is the forefather of Islam’s Muslims. We read of the selling of Joseph the Hebrew into slavery to be carried down to Egypt, today a Muslim nation, for the account is written as follows,

23  And it came to pass, when Joseph was come unto his brethren, that they stript Joseph out of his coat, his coat of many colours that was on him;
24  And they took him, and cast him into a pit: and the pit was empty, there was no water in it.
25  And they sat down to eat bread: and they lifted up their eyes and looked, and, behold, a company of Ishmeelites came from Gilead with their camels bearing spicery and balm and myrrh, going to carry it down to Egypt.
26  And Judah said unto his brethren, What profit is it if we slay our brother, and conceal his blood?
27  Come, and let us sell him to the Ishmeelites, and let not our hand be upon him; for he is our brother and our flesh. And his brethren were content.
28  Then there passed by Midianites merchantmen; and they drew and lifted up Joseph out of the pit, and sold Joseph to the Ishmeelites for twenty pieces of silver: and they brought Joseph into Egypt. ~ Genesis 37:23-28

One should go and read the Biblical History of this account that has been documented for mankind. Joseph had many trials down in Egypt, but GOD worked it all out for HIS will and purpose. Joseph not only ended up in jail being falsely accused of trying to lay with Pharaoh’s wife, but he eventually ended up ruling Egypt as second-in-command to Pharaoh! The end of the historical story is that what his brothers meant for evil, GOD used for HIS own good by saving HIS people. Our ways are not GOD’s ways and we do not always understand or know the reasons why events do take place, but thankfully GOD is in control reigning on high and knows the end from the beginning! GOD however does not condone men’s wicked slavery behaviour! The conclusion to Joseph’s story is that forgiveness and restoration takes place. We read, for it is written,

1  Then Joseph could not refrain himself before all them that stood by him; and he cried, Cause every man to go out from me. And there stood no man with him, while Joseph made himself known unto his brethren. 
2  And he wept aloud: and the Egyptians and the house of Pharaoh heard. 
3  And Joseph said unto his brethren, I am Joseph; doth my father yet live? And his brethren could not answer him; for they were troubled at his presence. 
4  And Joseph said unto his brethren, Come near to me, I pray you. And they came near. And he said, I am Joseph your brother, whom ye sold into Egypt. 
5  Now therefore be not grieved, nor angry with yourselves, that ye sold me hither: for God did send me before you to preserve life. 
6  For these two years hath the famine been in the land: and yet there are five years, in the which there shall neither be earing nor harvest. 
7  And God sent me before you to preserve you a posterity in the earth, and to save your lives by a great deliverance. 
8  So now it was not you that sent me hither, but God: and he hath made me a father to Pharaoh, and lord of all his house, and a ruler throughout all the land of Egypt. 
9  Haste ye, and go up to my father, and say unto him, Thus saith thy son Joseph, God hath made me lord of all Egypt: come down unto me, tarry not: 
10  And thou shalt dwell in the land of Goshen, and thou shalt be near unto me, thou, and thy children, and thy children’s children, and thy flocks, and thy herds, and all that thou hast: 
11  And there will I nourish thee; for yet there are five years of famine; lest thou, and thy household, and all that thou hast, come to poverty. 
12  And, behold, your eyes see, and the eyes of my brother Benjamin, that it is my mouth that speaketh unto you. 
13  And ye shall tell my father of all my glory in Egypt, and of all that ye have seen; and ye shall haste and bring down my father hither. 
14  And he fell upon his brother Benjamin’s neck, and wept; and Benjamin wept upon his neck.
15  Moreover he kissed all his brethren, and wept upon them: and after that his brethren talked with him. ~ Genesis 45:1-15

As South Africans we can learn by what has gone before. The only way this nation will prosper is by putting the past behind us by seeking GOD’s will in our nation and seeking to being restored! We know from scripture GOD says,

14  If my people, which are called by my name, shall humble themselves, and pray, and seek my face, and turn from their wicked ways; then will I hear from heaven, and will forgive their sin, and will heal their land. ~ 2 Chronicles 7:14

Zanzibari slave trader Tippu Tip owned 10,000 slaves [Photo: Wikipedia] From the extensive quote that appears at this link we read hereunder extensively regarding Muslim statistics in slavery. It is sickening to know that this false barbaric religion has persisted in slavery and keeping people in bondage. Where is the worldly outcry? The United Nations would rather be listening to lies from the Palestinian Authority (PA) and all ‘their’ allies the world over who sympathise with the PA murderers and slavers about how Israel kill ‘their’ people and yet they do very little about addressing Muslim slavery and other human trafficking the world over. Islam is not ‘a religion of peace’ but one of ungodly laws and slavery. My plea to Muslims: Repent of your wicked sins against GOD and believe upon the Lord Jesus Christ! Flee to HIM! HE can make you free!

Muslim Statistics (Slavery)

From WikiIslam, the online resource on Islam

Historical

A 19th-century engraving depicting an Arab slave-trading caravan transporting black African slaves across the Sahara [Photo: Wikipedia] A comparison of the Islamic slave trade to the American slave trade reveals some interesting contrasts. While two out of every three slaves shipped across the Atlantic were men, the proportions were reversed in the Islamic slave trade. Two women for every man were enslaved by the Muslims.

While the mortality rate for slaves being transported across the Atlantic was as high as 10%, the percentage of slaves dying in transit in the Trans Sahara and East African slave trade was between 80 and 90%!

While almost all the slaves shipped across the Atlantic were for agricultural work, most of the slaves destined for the Muslim Middle East were for sexual exploitation as concubines, in harems, and for military service.

While many children were born to slaves in the Americas, and millions of their descendants are citizens in Brazil and the USA to this day, very few descendants of the slaves that ended up in the Middle East survive.

While most slaves who went to the Americas could marry and have families, most of the male slaves destined for the Middle East were castrated, and most of the children born to the women were killed at birth.

It is estimated that possibly as many as 11 million Africans were transported across the Atlantic (95% of which went to South and Central America, mainly to Portuguese, Spanish and French possessions. Only 5% of the slaves went to the United States).

However, at least 28 million Africans were enslaved in the Muslim Middle East. As at least 80% of those captured by Muslim slave traders were calculated to have died before reaching the slave markets, it is believed that the death toll from the 14 centuries of Muslim slave raids into Africa could have been over 112 million. When added to the number of those sold in the slave markets, the total number of African victims of the Trans Saharan and East African slave trade could be significantly higher than 140 million people.
. . .
The Barbary Coast Historian Robert Davis in his book "Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters – White Slavery In the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast and Italy", estimates that North African Muslim pirates abducted and enslaved more than 1 million Europeans between 1530 and 1780. These white Christians were seized in a series of raids which depopulated coastal towns from Sicily to Cornwall. Thousands of white Christians in coastal areas were seized every year to work as galley slaves, labourers and concubines for Muslim slave masters in what is today Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria and Libya. Villages and towns on the coast of Italy, Spain, Portugal  and France were the hardest hit, but the Muslim slave raiders also seized people as far afield as Britain, Ireland and Iceland. They even captured 130 American seamen from ships they boarded in the Atlantic between 1785 and 1793.

According to one report, 7000 English people were abducted between 1622 to 1644, many of them ship crews and passengers. But the Corsairs also landed on unguarded beaches, often at night, to snatch the unwary. Almost all the inhabitants of the village of Baltimore, in Ireland, were captured in 1631, and there were other raids in Devon and Cornwall. Many of these white, Christian slaves were put to work in quarries, building sites and galleys and endured malnutrition, disease and mistreatment at the hands of their Muslim slave masters. Many of them were used for public works such as building harbours.

Muslim raiders and White women slaves [Photo: Wikipedia] Female captives were sexually abused in palace harems and others were held as hostages and bargained for ransom. "The most unlucky ended up stuck and forgotten out in the desert, in some sleepy town such as Suez, or in Turkish Sultanate galleys, where some slaves rowed for decades without ever setting foot on shore." Professor Davis estimates that up to 1,25 million Europeans were enslaved by Muslim slave raiders between 1500 to 1800. [1]

___________________________

[The Mediterranean slavery of the 16th and 17th centuries] was not race slavery, but nor was it indiscriminate. It was religious slavery. The human beings kidnapped and sold by the Barbary pirates were fair game because they were Christian. A Christian slave on the Barbary Coast could attain his freedom by converting to Islam, and many did so.
. . .
One of the most impressive parts of Prof. Davis’s book is his computation of the numbers of Europeans enslaved by these Muslim raiders. Combing through the historical sources, he concludes that there were about 35,000 enslaved Christians on the Barbary Coast at any one time. He then sets about estimating attrition rates. Slave numbers declined through four causes: death, escape, redemption (i.e. by ransom), and conversion to Islam. Davis gets annual rates from these causes of 17 percent, 1 percent, 2-3 percent, and 4 percent, respectively. This implies a total number of slaves, from the early 1500s to the late 1700s, of one to one and a quarter million. This is an astonishing number, implying that well into the 17th century, the Mediterranean slave trade was out-producing the Atlantic one. Numbers fell off thereafter, while the transatlantic trade increased; but in its time, the enslavement of European Christians by Muslim North Africans was the main kind of enslavement going on in the world.[2]

___________________________

Christian slavery in Barbary [Photo: Wikipedia]The result, then, is that between 1530 and 1780 there were almost certainly a million and quite possibly as many as a million and a quarter white, European Christians enslaved by the Muslims of the Barbary Coast.
. . .
In fact, even a tentative slave count in Barbary inevitably begs a host of new questions. To begin with, the estimates arrived at here make it clear that for most of the first two centuries of the modern era, nearly as many Europeans were taken forcibly to Barbary and worked or sold as slaves as were West Africans hauled off to labor on plantations in the Americas. In the sixteenth century especially, during which time the Atlantic slave runners still averaged only around 3,200 Africans annually, the corsairs of Algiers – and later Tunis and Tripoli – were regularly snatching that many or more white captives on a single raiding voyage to Sicily, the Balearics, or Valencia.[3]

___________________________

Modern Day

Afghanistan

Thousands of Afghan girls and boys are trafficked into neighboring countries and sold into slavery each year. Though it is taboo, prostitution is alive and thriving – at the cost of those forced to work in it.[4]

October 2012

– – – – – – – – – – – –
Arabs and their slaves [Photo: WikiIslam]Egypt

Egypt has come in second place in the trading of women, according to Azza Soliman, the national coordinator of fighting female human trafficking and trade.

Soliman said that Egypt has turned from a transit country to a “residence country” for the women
. . .
Experts say the number of women trafficked into neighboring countries is on the rise as wealthy Arabs take advantage of difficult economic situations, marry young girls with the intent to use them in the sex trade.

Makram Ouda, executive director of the Jordanian Women Union said that they have found 70 Egyptian women who were trafficked into Jordan and kept there as part of the sex trade network after their husbands “bought” them from their parents.

And while the marriage contracts are legitimate, these new brides find themselves working either as beggars or as sex workers.[5]

October 2012

– – – – – – – – – – – –

Indonesia

Data from End Child Prostitution, Child Pornography and the Trafficking of Children (Ecpat) show up to 70,000 children in Indonesia may have fallen victim to sexual exploitation.
. . .

The group says the majority of victims are from West, Central and East Java, West Kalimantan and North Sumatra. In many cases, the children are promised work as domestic workers but end up in prostitution dens.

More than 3,900 children here have fallen victim to human trafficking in the first half of the year, according to the International Organization for Migration. The country tops the UN body’s list of child trafficking cases.[6]

November 2011

– – – – – – – – – – – –
Mauritania

A Muslim slave trader [WikiIslam] Officially, slavery has long been abolished in Mauritania, but the law has never been enforced and there are an estimated 600,000 slaves, almost one in five of the country’s 3.2 million people, almost 150 years since the American civil war.

Change will come too late to heal Mrs Sayed’s ruined life. But she knows that victory for Mr Boulkheir could transform the future for the daughter and grandchildren whom she had to leave behind in captivity when she finally summoned the courage to escape.

A black African of Mauritania’s Haratine caste, she was born into slavery about 40 years ago – she is illiterate and has only a hazy idea of time – and grew up as the property of an Arabic-speaking Berber family, in an oasis town deep in the desert.

While her master’s children went to school, she was cooking, cleaning and washing from dawn to dusk. She slept on the floor, and suffered beatings.
. . .
Slave-holding has been abolished three times, first by the country’s former French overlords and then twice by different rulers of the independent state, most recently in 2007. But the law has never been enforced and no slave owner has ever been prosecuted.
. . .
Centuries of indoctrination have persuaded the Sahara’s captives that slavery is religiously ordained – slaves are taught that if they run away they will be barred from heaven. As a local saying puts it: "Paradise is under your master’s foot." In some remote places a runaway will still be hunted down by nomad masters.
. . .
A Berber driver, who would only give his first name, Mohammed, defended slavery. "It is our religion and custom," he said.

"Why does the international community try to stop it? The slaves are better off with their masters. This is their fate. When they leave, they starve."[7]

July 2009

– – – – – – – – – – – –
Pakistan

Officials at the U.S. embassy in Islamabad say at least three landlords have held as many as 170 bonded farmworkers at gunpoint on their estates in the country’s southeast Sindh province since late September.
. . .

The crisis began after the workers’ advocates successfully petitioned three district courts to declare as illegal the debts that the landlords were using to compel the workers into indentured servitude. Those debts average around 1,000 Pakistani rupees — roughly $12. The hostages, a third of whom are children, some as young as 4 months old, are landless peasants, known as haari in Urdu. According to Ghulam Hyder, a spokesman for Pakistan’s Green Rural Development Organization, the landlords have killed one hostage already and are threatening to kill the others unless they drop the cases and return to work.
. . .
A 2004 study by the International Labour Office (ILO) estimated that there are up to a million haari families in Sindh alone, the majority living in conditions of debt bondage, which the U.N. defines as modern-day slavery. Last fall, Pakistan’s Daily Times newspaper quoted the labor minister of neighboring Punjab province as saying that landlords hold millions of forced laborers in "private prisons" across the country.

While the nation’s 1992 Bonded Labour System Act mandates five-year sentences for violators, Pakistani officials have yet to record a single conviction. "The police are turning a blind eye on the issue," says Hyder[8]

October 2009

Child labour: According to a study by SPARC, most of the child domestic workers in Pakistan are aged between 10-15 years (sometimes five years old children are also employed). In the absence of official statistics, it is impossible to assess the magnitude of bonded labour, but it is estimated that 1.7 million people are engaged in bonded labour in Pakistan.[9]

September 2012

– – – – – – – – – – – –
Saudi Arabia

A Meccan merchant (right) and his Circassian slave. Entitled, ‘Vornehmner Kaufmann mit seinem cirkassischen Sklaven’ [Distinguished merchant and his circassian slave] by Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje, ca. 1888. [Photo: Wikipedia] Children between five and 12 years old are sold to wealthy men in Saudi Arabia, where they are held as sex slaves. When they reach maturity, and many are thrown on the street and they end quickly as a prostitute.

Save the Children appeal to the Norwegian and Swedish ministers take up the issue with their Saudi counterparts, and asks private companies to take up the exploitation of children when they hit their business.

– I am not surprised by the information about the existence of such traffic to Saudi Arabia and other countries in the region, particularly in light of [the fact] that marriage with children is widespread and accepted, “said Sannah Johnson, regional director of the Middle East for the Swedish Save the Children.

A well-organized network of traffickers supplying the Arab market with child brides from the North African country of Mauritania, says U.S. diplomats. Retrieved as sex slaves in their thousands from Yemen, in addition to that there is an extensive sex industry in Yemen offering sex with minors to rich men from the Gulf states, the Wikileaks documents and Aftenposten Bergens Tidende has access to.[10]

May 2011

– – – – – – – – – – – –
Sudan

Unlike the West, slavery is still alive and thriving in the Islamic East. "The classification of the conflict as a "holy war" — a jihad against the Christian South and its allies in the Nuba Mountains – legitimized in the eyes of many Northern Muslims the revival of the centuries-old practice of taking slaves as war booty."

In slave raids on Southern villages, conducted by government-backed Arab militias known as murahaleen, estimated hundreds of thousands of blacks, mostly women and children, were captured, transported to the North and enslaved.

Since 1995, AASG’s partner, Christian Solidarity International (CSI), has been working to free Sudan’s slaves. The organization provides funds to the indigenous network of Africans and Arabs who cooperate on returning the captives. CSI’s efforts resulted in the liberation of over 80,000 slaves.

In 2005, under guidance of the US Government, the North and the South signed a Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) that ended the war and provided for Southern self-determination. The CPA ended the slave raids, but left the fate of those already in bondage unresolved. According to the recent Congressional testimony of CSI’s CEO Dr. John Eibner, approximately 35,000 are still serving their masters in parts of Southern Darfur and Kordofan.

In the week prior to the independence, CSI liberated 404 slaves.[11]

July 2011

– – – – – – – – – – – –
Yemen

13th century slave market in the Yemen [Photo: WikiIslam] Officially, slavery was abolished back in 1962 but a judge’s decision to pass on the title deed of a "slave" from one master to another has blown the lid off the hidden bondage of hundreds of Yemenis.

The judge in the town of Hajja, which is home to some 300 slaves, according to residents, said he had certified the transfer only because the new owner planned to free the slave.

But his decision has triggered a campaign by local human right activists.

A 2009 report by the human rights ministry found that males and females were still enslaved in the provinces of Hudaydah and Hajja, in northwest Yemen — the Arab world’s most impoverished country.
. . .
"We are still in the process of trying to count the numbers of slaves," the coordinator of rights group Hood, Mohammed Naji Allaw, told AFP, explaining that slaves were "owned by title deeds, or inherited within families."

The news website almasdaronline earlier spoke of "500 slaves" across Yemen.

In addition to "slaves whose owner can use them however he wants," the ministry report also refers to other groups subjected to slave-like conditions, although they are not bound by documents.

One group includes "former slaves who have been officially set free, but remain at the service of their former masters, who continue to feed them but never pay them wages," the report said.

Allaw said such people are still referred to as "the slaves of such and such a family, or the slaves of such and such a tribe."

Enslaved groups are descendants of an empire which ruled Yemen in the 11th and 12th centuries, with their origins in ancient Ethiopia, across the Red Sea from Yemen. They were enslaved after their empire was defeated.[12]

July 2010

Conclusion

In concluding this part of our investigations it is established that the Christian perspective of ‘slavery’ is none other than the Biblical truth of servants in servitude. It is totally opposite to what Marxist black South African political parties advocate by demonising whites. We also learn that the wicked and evil slave practices that black Africans decry against all whites actually were instituted by black Africans and Arab slave traders themselves. Wicked white ship-owners then joined the ‘lucrative’ business of dealing in human merchandise for evil and inhumane gain! However, one cannot tar and feather every person from any particular people group or skin pigmentation (race) for not all hold to the same practices. There is good and there is evil found in every walk of life, but white people are the scapegoat for another’s evil and wicked practices. We end with the following quote,

“The slaves in Africa, I suppose, are nearly in the proportion of three to one to the freemen. They claim no reward for their services except food and clothing, and are treated with kindness or severity, according to the good or bad disposition of their masters. Custom, however, has established certain rules with regard to the treatment of slaves, which it is thought dishonourable to violate. Thus the domestic slaves, or such as are born in a man’s own house, are treated with more lenity than those which are purchased with money. … But these restrictions on the power of the master extend not to the care of prisoners taken in war, nor to that of slaves purchased with money. All these unfortunate beings are considered as strangers and foreigners, who have no right to the protection of the law, and may be treated with severity, or sold to a stranger, according to the pleasure of their owners.”

Travels in the Interior of Africa, Mungo Park, Travels in the Interior of Africa v. II, Chapter XXII – War and Slavery.

Finally free - Mende Nazer was abducted and sold into slavery in Sudan at the age of 12. She has been granted asylum in UK. [Photo: WikiIslam]Finally free – Mende Nazer was abducted and sold into slavery in Sudan at the age of 12. She has been granted asylum in UK. [Photo: WikiIslam]

Slaves in Africa are “three to one to the freemen”, and whites do not own them! Go figure!Soli Deo Gloria

_____________________

Footnotes:

[1] Precis of the Archives of the Cape of Good Hope, December 1651 – December 1655, Riebeeck’s Journal – by H. C. V. Leibrandt, Keeper of the Archives. Part I. Cape Town : W. A. Richards & Sons, Government Printers, 1897. pp100-171.

[2] Strong’s Complete Word Study Concordance, Expanded Edition: James Strong, LL.D., S.T.D.: Editor – Warren Baker, Copyright © 2004, Published by AMG Publishers.

[3] Glossary: Field Guide to the Battlefields of South Africa – by Nicki von der Heyde, Published by Struik Travel & Heritage (© Penguin Random House 2013)

[4] Kafir, WikiIslam – References:

  • [1] "…Kafir: Literally means "a disbeliever". In Islam it refers to one who rejects Allah and who does not believe in Muhammad sallallahu alayhi wa sallam as the final messenger of Allah.…" – Islamic Glossary
  • [2] "…kafir noun (pl=kuffar) 1. (Islam) infidel, Infidel, pagan, non-believer; a non-Muslim aside from ahl al-kitab (Christians, Jews, etc.). 2. (Islam) Infidel, pagan, non-believer; any non-Muslim. Ref: Shaykh Al-Islam ibn Taymiyyah (Rahimullah) v27 p264: "Whosoever does not forbid people from the deen of the Jews and Christians after the prophethood of the messenger Muhammad (saw) nor declares them kafir nor hates them, he is not a Muslim by the consensus of ALL Muslims, their scholars and the general public."…"AllWords.com – kafir
  • [3] ""…the permissive people, who do not believe in any command or prohibition at all and refer to the Divine will and decree as an excuse for their evil deeds, are worse off than the Jews, Christians and Arab mushrikeen, because even though the latter are kaafirs, they still believe in some kind of command and prohibition…" – Atheism is a greater sin than shirk – Islam Q&A, Fatwa No. 113901
  • [4] "…But it is not permissible to marry her, as she is still a Kafir (non-Muslim) and has not yet embraced Islam wholeheartedly without any doubt.…" – Thinking of marrying an atheist – Dr. Abdullah Al-faqih, Islam Web, Fatwa No. 88328, July 21, 2004
  • [5] "…This is something that is well known among the Muslims, and they are unanimously agreed that the Christians are kaafirs, and even that those who do not regard them as kaafirs are also kaafirs…" – Qur’an, Hadith and Scholars:People of the Book

    [5] Islamic law: Slavery, WikiIslam – References:

  • [145] "….I married a virgin woman in her veil. When I entered upon her, I found her pregnant. (I mentioned this to the Prophet). The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: She will get the dower, for you made her vagina lawful for you. The child will be your slave…." – Sunan Abu Dawud 11:2126
  • [146] Shaikh Salih al-Fawzan’s "affirmation of slavery" was found on page 24 of "Taming a Neo-Qutubite Fanatic Part 1" when accessed on February 17, 2007 http://www.salafipublications.com/sps/downloads/pdf/GRV07000
  • [148] "Zad al-Ma’ad" by Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya Part 1, Pages 114-116
  • [149] "Zad al-Ma’ad" by Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya Part 1, Pages 114-116
  • [150] "….Waqidi has informed us that Abu Bakr has narrated that the messenger of Allah (PBUH) had sexual intercourse with Mariyyah [his Coptic slave] in the house of Hafsah…." – Tabaqat v. 8 p. 223 Publisher Entesharat-e Farhang va Andisheh Tehran 1382 solar h ( 2003) Translator Dr. Mohammad Mahdavi Damghan
  • [151] "….Allah’s Apostle sent someone to a woman telling her to "Order her slave, carpenter, to prepare a wooden pulpit for him to sit on."…." – Sahih Bukhari 1:8:439
  • [152] "…."Do you know, O Allah’s Apostle, that I [Maimuna bint Al-Harith] have manumitted my slave-girl?" He said, "Have you really?" She replied in the affirmative. He said, "You would have got more reward if you had given her (i.e. the slave-girl) to one of your maternal uncles." – Sahih Bukhari 3:47:765
  • [153] "….Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) said: Sell him to me. And he bought him for two black slaves,…." – Sahih Muslim 10:3901
  • [156] E. Benjamin Skinner – Pakistan’s Forgotten Plight: Modern-Day Slavery – TIME, October 27, 2009
  • [157] Jamal al-Jaberi – ‘Slaves’ in impoverished Yemen still dream of freedom – AFP, July 20, 2010
  • [158] Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean; the Barbary Coast and Italy 1500 – 1800, by Robert Davis, Palgrave MacMillan, 2004
  • [159] The Scourge of Slavery – Christian Action, 2004 Vol 4
  • [160] Islam’s Black Slaves, by Ronald Segal, Farrar, New York, 2001

    [6] Muslim Statistics (Slavery), WikiIslam – References:

    1. The Scourge of Slavery – Christian Action, 2004 Vol 4
    2. John Derbyshire – Fear of the Horizon (Book Review) – National Review Online, September 13, 2006
    3. Robert C. Davis, "Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast and Italy, 1500-1800", New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003, pp. 23-24
    4. Waslat Hasrat-Nazimi – Human trafficking, prostitution thrive in Afghanistan – Deutsche Welle, October 24, 2012
    5. Made Arya Kencana – Measures to Protect Children From Sex Exploitation ‘Still Weak’ – Jakarta Globe, November 4, 2011
    6. E. Benjamin Skinner – Pakistan’s Forgotten Plight: Modern-Day Slavery – TIME, October 27, 2009
    7. Jamal al-Jaberi – ‘Slaves’ in impoverished Yemen still dream of freedom – AFP, July 20, 2010

    Related Blog Posts:

    The Gospel comes to South Africa (13 December 2012)

    Answer to Sandile ~ Part 1 (3 June 2013)

    The Gospel . . . Racism and South African History (8 March 2016)

    365 Years Ago Today . . . (6 April 2017)

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