The Nestle-Aland Greek New Testament Text

Proverb 18:13 He that answereth a matter before he heareth it, it is folly and shame unto him.

pervert v. /per-vert/ 1 alter from an original meaning or state to a distortion of what was first intended. 2 lead away from what is right, natural, or acceptable.

© South African Pocket Oxford Dictionary, 3rd Edition 2002

Following on from the recent five part series titled “Pervert Translations and Publishers” which can be found here – Part 1, Part 2, Part 3, Part 4, Part 5 – a stern warning that needs to be brought to elders, pastor-teachers, evangelists, laymen, scholars and theologians, which warning was hopefully picked up from the aforementioned series, is that we are to be aware of which modern-day Greek New Testament text we are using when comparing Scripture back to the “original” Greek text.

Whilst many of the person-types afore-stated in the opening paragraph say that only the original manuscripts of the Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek autographs were inspired by God Almighty, the very same persons contradict themselves when they say, and attest the fact, that they go back to the “original” text in their studies’ of God’s Word or preparation of their sermons by using man-made interlinear translations that have deviated away from the Byzantine Text – which is also known as the Majority Text or the Textus Receptus (Received Text). The Byzantine Text is the text that came through the line of Antioch, whilst the more modern translations that use the Codex Vaticanus and Codex Sinaiticus manuscripts, which incidentally differs greatly against the majority manuscripts as well as against each other, they came through the Alexandrian line, and from about 1881 this is commonly known as the Critical Text. A useful aid to see how these two lines are in operation can be found by clicking on the diagram hereunder.


This Critical Text was brought about by the two Cambridge professors Messrs Brooke Foss Westcott (1825-1901) and Fenton John Anthony Hort (1828-1892) who hated what they called “that vile Textus Receptus” and therefore brought about their own eclectic critical text which is the apparatus for the modern pervert bibles. In fact, to be truthful, the eclectic critical text of Westcott-Hort should be termed the Textus Corruptus! These are The Men Who Made Themselves Judges over God’s Word, and were heretics with their outrageous beliefs and practices.

To understand the History of the Nestle-Aland Edition, we will go to their very own source as it appears at the Nestle-Aland Novum Testamentum Graece Website, and quote:

History of the Nestle-Aland Edition

In 1898 Eberhard Nestle published the first edition of his Novum Testamentum Graece. Based on a simple yet ingenious idea it disseminated the insights of the textual criticism of that time through a hand edition designed for university and school studies and for church purposes. Nestle took the three leading scholarly editions of the Greek New Testament at that time by Tischendorf, Westcott/Hort and Weymouth as a basis. (After 1901 he replaced the latter with Bernhard Weiß’s 1894/1900 edition.) Where their textual decisions differed from each other Nestle chose for his own text the variant which was preferred by two of the editions included, while the variant of the third was put into the apparatus.

The text-critical apparatus remained rudimentary in all the editions published by Eberhard Nestle. It was Eberhard Nestle’s son Erwin who provided the 13th edition of 1927 with a consistent critical apparatus showing evidence from manuscripts, early translations and patristic citations. However, these notes did not derive from the primary sources, but only from editions.

This changed in the nineteen-fifties, when Kurt Aland started working for the edition by checking the apparatus entries against Greek manuscripts and editions of the Church Fathers. This phase came to a close in 1963 when the 25th edition of the Novum Testamentum Graece appeared; later printings of this edition already carried the brand name “Nestle-Aland” on their covers.

The 26th edition, which appeared in 1979, featured a fundamentally new approach. Until then the guiding principle had been to adopt the text supported by a majority of the critical editions referred to. Now the text was established on the basis of source material that had been assembled and evaluated in the intervening period. It included early papyri and other manuscript discoveries, so that the 26th edition represented the situation of textual criticism in the 20th century. Its text was identical with that of the 3rd edition of the UBS Greek New Testament (GNT) published in 1975, as a consequence of the parallel work done on both editions. Already in 1955 Kurt Aland was invited to participate in an editorial committee with Matthew Black, Bruce M. Metzger, Alan Wikgren, and at first Arthur Vööbus, later Carlo Martini (and, from 1982, Barbara Aland and Johannes Karavidopoulos) to produce a reliable hand edition of the Greek New Testament.

The first edition of the GNT appeared in 1966. Its text was established along the lines of Westcott and Hort and differed considerably from Nestle’s 25th edition. This holds true for the second edition of the GNT as well. When the third edition was prepared Kurt Aland was able to contribute the textual proposals coming from his preliminary work on the 26th edition of the Nestle-Aland. Hence the process of establishing the text for both editions continued to converge, so that eventually they could share an identical text. However, their external appearance and the design of their apparatus remains different, because they serve different purposes. The GNT is primarily intended for translators, providing a reliable Greek initial text and a text-critical apparatus showing variants that are relevant for translation. In the case of the passages selected for this purpose the evidence is displayed as completely as possible. The Novum Testamentum Graece is produced primarily for research, academic education and pastoral practice. It seeks to provide an apparatus that enables the reader to make a critical assessment of the reconstruction of the Greek initial text.

The text of the 26th edition of the Nestle-Aland was adopted for the 27th edition also, while the apparatus underwent an extensive revision. The text remained the same, because the 27th edition was not “deemed an appropriate occasion for introducing textual changes”. Since then the situation has changed, because the Editio Critica Maior (ECM) of the Catholic Letters is now available. Its text was established on the basis of all the relevant material from manuscripts and other sources. The ECM text was adopted for the present edition following approval by the editorial committee of the Nestle-Aland and the GNT.

Now to distort the matter even further, there is now even a later 28th Edition that can be read online at their website! When are men going to stop with their pervert manuscripts?

To put this all in perspective, let us use a simple analogy: It stands to reason that if  we are told that we have a “better translation” (hypothetically-speaking) of a bible called the NIV, then why would another one have to be printed as a more up-to-date version if you already have the “best translation” (sarcastically-speaking) available. You see the irrational reasoning here? The same foolhardiness applies when a person says the “original” Greek Text was only inspired by God, but the same person goes back to a man inspired translation manuscript of the Greek Text in an interlinear to confirm God’s Word through criticism. This is dangerous ground to be playing on especially,

2 Corinthians 5:10  For we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ; that every one may receive the things done in his body, according to that he hath done, whether it be good or bad.


1 Corinthians 3:11  For other foundation can no man lay than that is laid, which is Jesus Christ.
1 Corinthians 3:12  Now if any man build upon this foundation gold, silver, precious stones, wood, hay, stubble;
1 Corinthians 3:13  Every man’s work shall be made manifest: for the day shall declare it, because it shall be revealed by fire; and the fire shall try every man’s work of what sort it is.
1 Corinthians 3:14  If any man’s work abide which he hath built thereupon, he shall receive a reward.
1 Corinthians 3:15  If any man’s work shall be burned, he shall suffer loss: but he himself shall be saved; yet so as by fire.

The Nestle-Aland-UBS Greek New Testament texts are “wood, hay, stubble” and will be burned up. Be forewarned, that this is a serious situation as there is false-teachings that are coming out of using these erroneous Greek New Testament Texts criticising the words contained in God’s Holy Word which is to be taught as the plumbline and not criticized.

In closing, here is a pdf format document titled “Corruption Unveiled: A Critical Analysis of the United Bible Societies’ The Greek New Testament” by brother Jesse M. Boyd which sets the record straight.

Here is also a video that needs to be watched that brings Proof the ASV, RSV, JB, LB, TEV, NEB, NIV, NASV, GNB, NRSV, NAB, CEV, NCV, ESV, NBV, NKJV, NWT (Jehovah Witness Bible), THE MESSAGE, HOLMANS, etc, are the New Vatican Versions:

Dearly beloved brethren, I might not be a learned Greek scholar, but I do take comfort from the following Scripture,

Act 4:13 Now when they saw the boldness of Peter and John, and perceived that they were unlearned and ignorant men, they marvelled; and they took knowledge of them, that they had been with Jesus.

I stand upon and believe every Word of God as contained in the King James Holy Bible. If we do not have a 100% accurate Bible in the English tongue, then where can we get an infallible, inerrant, inspired and preserved, full and complete Word from GOD? And if the versions are “some better, some worse” (quote from Dr John MacArthur’s “Transmission” on page xxi to his NASB Study Bible) then at which point will GOD give us His full historical account of His Word that is perfect? TRUTH is 100% – if it is 99.9% true with 0.1% error, it is not Truth! The 0.1% corrupts the 99.9% and makes it a LIE! King Jesus Christ of Nazareth said,

John 17:17  Sanctify them through thy truth: thy word is truth.

Whilst the only begotten Son of God, the Lord Jesus Christ warned about deception, today we need to follow His example. We need to preach the Truth and nothing, but the Truth and that includes being a Watchman upon the city wall warning about deceptions, for if the wall be fallen down you will be open to attack.

Soli Deo Gloria!

7 Responses

  1. I was just curious about which edition of the KJV do you believe is the inerrant Word of God? Is the Cambridge edition? Is it the Zondervan edition? Is it the Oxford edition? Perhaps one published by an independent publisher? They are all different in some ways (yes sometimes in spelling here or there but they do use different words). So if the KJV is the inerrant Word then we must know which one is the Word of God and then compare all KJV editions by that one edition otherwise you have a corrupt text.

    • Dear The Seeking Disciple

      Thank you for your comment which is appreciated. It would appear that these type of questions have been asked on a frequent basis in many other forums, and the counter-questions should be: Is it a genuine question out of a concern to find which King James Bible to use? Or is it another strongman argument to say there is no “inerrant and perfect” Bible?

      Well, the best King James Bible would be any King James Bible that you can buy, but preferably if you are wanting a precise answer it would be the Cambridge edition printed one. The issue here is that the KJB text is not changed in any way and neither are the doctrines altered as is the case with the modern versions (have you read the five part series afore-stated?). I have just recently received a gift from a missionary brother-in-Christ who blessed me with a beautiful leather-bound King James Bible “Published by Concerned Independent Baptist Churches in the United States of America, Printed in the USA by First Baptist Church, Milford, Ohio – First Word Publishers.”

      Previously, I used a “Zondervan printed” KJV that had cross referencing passages and “chapter descriptions” that had errors in them that was misleading. One always tends to focus on these inclusions by the publishers, but I want only the Holy Spirit to lead me and teach me from the Scriptures as I read the same.

      I think the following article sums up everything pertaining to your queries. Please click on the video link as you can read along what is being clarified by Will Kinney. (Incidentally, I received the above King James Holy Bible from the USA before I came across this article today! Only after reading it myself, did I see the FBC Milford connection. This I believe is not by chance, it is by providence!)

      Video –

      Manuscript –

      If the KJB is not inerrant, infallible, inspired and preserved, and a perfect and complete Bible, then please show me, or lead me to the one so I can have it! It would appear from your closing statement you do not believe God has given us a perfect Bible in the English tongue.

      I hope this helps.

      Take care.

      • I do believe He has given us a perfect Bible translation in the ESV. The ESV is the inspired, inerrant, infallible Bible for us today. No matter what others may say, no matter what the Greek may say, no matter what other Bible translations say, the ESV is the inerrant and infallible Word of God. I know this because of 1) the blessing of God upon the ESV. 2) The fact that the translators were devout believers in the inerrant Word of God, and 3) the Lord led the translators just as He did when He first inspired the KJV translators many years ago.

        Sadly, the KJV we have today is now corrupt. Various Bible publishers have corrupted the pure Word of God and so the Lord has given His Church the gift of the ESV. The ESV today is the standard for all others to be compared with including the KJV. Where the KJV differs with the ESV, take the ESV. Where the NIV differs with the ESV, take the ESV. Where the Greek differs with the ESV, take the ESV.

        The ESV is the Word of God.

      • Dear Roy

        You certainly cannot be serious. You have missed the mark with your comment. The ESV is a corrupt “gender-neutral” Bible version. It uses the Nestle-Aland 27th Edition NT Greek text which uses the heretics Westcott-Hort eclectic critical NT Greek text. So you are saying God only inspired and preserved His Word in 2001 through the ESV. It appears you don’t have a high regard for GOD Almighty.

        Here is a quote that appears at my Pervert Translations and Publishers ~ Part 3 dealing with the ESV:

        “2) ESV complete bible published in 2001 (revision in 2007 changed 500 words in grammar, consistency and clarity. This edition was issued in April 2011 and the 2007 edition has been gradually phased out), and is a revision of the 1971 edition of the Revised Standard Version (RSV). The RSV had the OT printed in 1952 and NT printed in 1946 and the RSV is a revision of the American Standard Version (ASV). The initial RSV of 1881 is the Westcott and Hort perversion of the KJV. The RSV was published in the following stages:

        * New Testament (first edition) 1946 (originally copyrighted to the International Council of Religious Education)

        * Old Testament (and thus the full Protestant Bible), 1952

        * Apocrypha, 1957

        * Modified Edition, 1962

        * RSV Catholic Edition (NT 1965, Complete Bible 1966)

        * New Testament (second edition), 1971

        * Common Bible, 1973

        * Apocrypha, expanded edition, 1977

        * Second Catholic Edition, 2006

        * In later years the RSV served as the basis for two revisions – the New Revised Standard Version (NRSV) of 1989, and the English Standard Version (ESV) of 2001

        The publisher, citing that the ESV has been growing in popularity, came up with an edition of the ESV with the Biblical apocrypha included, which was developed by Oxford University Press and published in January 2009. The publisher’s hope for the new edition which includes the Apocrypha is that it will be used widely in seminaries and divinity schools where these books are used as a part of academic study. [Oxford University Press, 2012]

        The ESV version of the Apocrypha is a revision of the Revised Standard Version 1977 Expanded Edition. …

        © 2001 by Crossway Bibles, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers of Wheaton, Illinois, U.S. Apocrypha Copyright 2009 by Oxford University Press.”

        It’s a “hotchpotch” of various bible versions used to get the ESV.

        Hereunder are further proofs you need to examine in order to understand that you are using a corrupt Vatican translation:

        Video –

        Manuscript –

        Other links –

        You certainly don’t have an inerrant, infallible preserved Word of God in the ESV. As you reject the KJB, it leaves you as a Bible-agnostic!

      • My faith is this: if God so inspired the KJV, can He not do this again? I believe He has. He has given us the ESV to correct all other translations and to lead us back to His truth. The KJV was used by God for over 400 years but sadly it fell into corruption. Therefore, the Lord, by His grace and mercy, has given us the ESV. Again, where the ESV differs with any Greek texts or any other translations, take the ESV.

      • Your faith then must be flawed and in error. You are then alluding that God could not preserve His Word as stated in His Scriptures that He would do so. Matthew 24:35; Mark 13:31; Luke 21:33 all read: Heaven and earth shall pass away, but my words shall not pass away.

        You obviously do not understand what “inspiration” means when you say “if God so inspired the KJV, can He not do this again?” Read part 1 of my blog posting Pervert Translations and Publishers and read the link about the inspiration and preservation of God’s Word written by Jesse Boyd. I do see why you are defending the ESV because you promote the same on your blog and it is “your choice” of text that you wish to read. The attacks will continually come against the pure Word of God contained in the English tongue being the KJB, just as the devil has done ever since the Garden of Eden! There is nothing new under the sun (see Ecclesiastes 1:9).

        I just ask you to examine all things very carefully. Do take care.

  2. […] The Nestle-Aland New Greek Testament Text; […]

Leave a Reply to Gary Crous Cancel reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: